The genera Lasiodorides Schmidt & Bischoff, 1997 and
Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994 are preliminarily revised, and their taxonomy stabilized. Both sexes of Lasiodorides polycuspulatus Schmidt & Bischoff, 1997, and the male of Lasiodorides striatus (Schmidt & Antonelli, 1996) are redescribed, and the genus
Lasiodorides is rediagnosed. Lasiodorides rolinae Tesmoingt, 1999 is proposed as a junior synonym of L. polycuspulatus syn. nov., based on colouration and spermathecal morphology. Lasiodorides remotus Schmidt, 2007 is proposed as a junior synonym of L. polycuspulatus syn. nov., based on spermathecal morphology. Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) and Thrixopelma lagunas Schmidt & Rudloff, 2010 are redescribed. Thrixopelma ockerti Schmidt, 1994 is illustrated from the syntype series and redescribed based on a non-type female from Iquitos, Peru, held in the collections of the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Thrixopelma longicolli (Schmidt, 2003) comb. nov. is newly transferred from Lasiodorides to Thrixopelma based on palpal bulb morphology, and the holotype male is redescribed. The inherent problems of the paratype exuviae of this taxon are also discussed. Thrixopelma peruvianum (Schmidt, 2007) comb. nov. is newly transferred from Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 following examination of the holotype female exuvia and a conspecific non-type female exuvia. Thrixopelma cyaneolum Schmidt, Friebolin & Friebolin, 2005 is discussed ad illustrated from the syntype female exuviae. Thrixopelma pruriens Schmidt, 1998 is discussed and illustrated from the holotype female exuvia, and the problematic non-type material discussed. Finally, we argue that future designation of exuviae as type specimens of novel theraphosid spiders should be considered an unacceptable practice in arachnology.
A new species of Cymbiapophysa Gabriel & Sherwood, 2020, C. magna sp. nov. is described from Colombia. Proshapalopus marimbai Perafán & Valencia-Cuéllar, 2018 is transferred to Cymbiapophysa from Proshapalopus Mello-Leitão, 1923, based on male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis morphology, female spermathecal morphology, comparative labial cuspule counts in
both sexes, and biogeography, creating the new combination Cymbiapophysa marimbai comb. nov. Aspects of some structures of the male palpal bulb are also discussed.
The taxonomic history of Bumba Pérez-Miles, Bonaldo & Miglio, 2014 is mainly based on the inclusion of the new species. Bumba have been characterized by the type IV urticating setae present, retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, palpal bulb resting in a ventral distal excavation of palpal tibia, metatarsus I passes between the two branches of tibial apophysis when flexed, presence of spiniform setae on prolateral and retrolateral sides of maxillae and coxae I-IV. In this paper we include the row of teeth (denticulate row) in the median region of the inferior prolateral keel in all male palps. This structure range from a residual tooth to a ridge of up to five teeth. Both, the denticulate row and the retrolateral process on male palpal tibia in males could be considered as putative synapomorphies for Bumba. Here, Homoeomma humile Vellard, 1924 is transferred to Bumba and redescribed, while the female is described for the first time. Bumba cabocla (Pérez-Miles, 2000) is synonymyzed with B. horrida (Schmidt, 1994). Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is transferred to Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871. Four new species are described and illustrated: Bumba tapajos sp. nov. from state of Pará, Bumba cuiaba sp. nov. and Bumba rondonia sp. nov., both from states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, respectively, and Bumba mineiros sp. nov. from Paraguay and the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Diagnosis of B. horrida and B. lennoni are extended and figures of this species are presented.
Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 is a spider genus from the Caribbean islands characterized by the presence of stridulatory setae on trochanter of palps and legs I. Franganillo Balboa described eight species of Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 from Cuba between 1926–1936. The type-material is deposited in the Instituto de Ecología y Sistematica do Ministerio de Ciencias, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, La Habana, Cuba. Four species are redescribed here: Cyrtopholis plumosa Franganillo, 1931, Cyrtopholis major Franganillo, 1926, Cyrtopholis unispina Franganillo, 1926 and Cyrtopholis gibbosa Franganillo, 1936. Cyrtopholis ischnoculoformis Franganillo, 1926 is based on a juvenile specimen without stridulatory setae, and it is therefore considered here as species inquirenda. The type-material of two other species were not located: Cyrtopholis anacanta Franganillo, 1935 and Cyrtopholis obsoleta (Franganillo, 1935), and are considered to be lost. These two species are here considered as species inquirenda, since the original descriptions do not permit identification. Cyrtopholis respina Franganillo 1935 is considered a nomen dubium, due to the lack of a formal description and a doubtful citation.
Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new Theraphosinae genus with stridulatory bristles on the palpal trocanther of pedipalp trochanter and first leg, is proposed. The genus differs from the other genera with stridulatory bristles on the same segments, Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871, Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892, Longilyra Gabriel, 2014 and Nesipelma Schmidt & Kovarik, 1996, by having a palpal bulb with a very short and acuminate embolus and four short keels; separated tibial apophysis; and female spermathecae resembling those of Cyrtopholis, with two seminal receptacles with elongated ducts emerging from a common area. Cyrtopholis palmarum Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945 and C. schmidti Rudloff, 1996 from Brazil and Acanthoscurria acuminata Schmidt & Tesmoingt in Schmidt, 2005 from Bolivia are transferred to the new genus. The female of Umbyquyra palmarum (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) gen. et comb. nov. and the male of U. schmidti (Rudloff, 1996) gen. et comb. nov. are described for the first time. Cyrtopholis zorodes Mello-Leitão, 1923 is considered a junior synonym of Acanthoscurria gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Cyrtopholis meridionalis (Keyserling, 1891) is considered a nomen dubium. Eight new species from Brazil are described: Umbyquyra paranaiba gen. et sp. nov., U. cuiaba gen. et sp. nov., U. araguaia gen. et sp. nov., U. sapezal gen. et sp. nov., U. belterra gen. et sp. nov., U. caxiuana gen. et sp. nov., U. tucurui gen. et sp. nov. and U. tapajos gen. et sp. nov. Data and maps on the geographic distribution are provided.
Hapalotremus exilis (Mello-Leitão, 1923) and Hapalotremus muticus (Mello-Leitão, 1923), previously considered as nomina dubia are here revalidated through the examination of the holotypes. Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 is revalidated and their type species, Dolichothele exilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 is restored. Goniodontium Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Oligoxystre Vellard, 1924 are considered junior synonyms of Dolichothele. Hapalotremus muticus and Oligoxystre caatinga Guadanucci, 2007 are considered junior synonyms of D. exilis. All species of Oligoxystre are transferred to Dolichothele. Cyclothoracoides Strand, 1929, currently a junior synonym of Hapalotremus Simon, 1903, is here considered a junior synonym of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, T. aridai sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three males and three females collected at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. Males can be distinguished from T. perp Guadanucci & Silva, 2012 by the palpal bulb with an inconspicous tegular basal projection, but presenting a very slender embolus with shorter keels not extending to the tip, and from T. nubilus Simon, 1892 by the tibial apophysis with two similarly sized branches, the prolateral one with a strong spine on the retrolateral margin. Females resemble T. nubilus by the aspect of the seminal receptacle but the constriction near the apex is less evident and apex shape is irregular. The new species represents the first record of Tmesiphantes from the Amazonian region, bringing the total number of species to eight.
In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.
A new genus, Catanduba
, is proposed and supported on the cladistic analysis with the following synapomorphies: embolus tapering abruptly from half of the length, embolus tooth associated with PIK and a triangular basal nodule on male metatarsus I. Homoeomma simoni and Plesiopelma flavohirtum are transferred to Catanduba and five new species are described: C. tuskae
, C. araguaia
, C. piauiensis
, C. canabrava
and C. peruacu
. The species occur mainly in central Brazil,
in Cerrado areas, with some species also occurring in Atlantic forest (C. tuskae
sp. n. ) and Caatinga (C. piauiensis sp. n.
and C. peruacu
The original description of this species was based on a single female and no illustrations of reproductive organs were presented. After we collected several specimens identified as I. seladonium, we decided to redescribe this species and discovered that the male, previously described as belonging to this species, was misidentified by MELLO LEITÃO (1923). Thus, in this paper the male of I. seladonium is newly described and the reproductive organs of male and female are described and illustrated in detail. Notes on the behavior and natural history of I. seladonium are presented based on the observation of live specimens in the field and in captivity. An immature of I. seladonium was observed constructing a hinged retreat with silk and little pieces of bark, a behavior not previously seen for other Aviculariinae. Two courtship events were observed and photographed, leg tapping and palpal drumming of the male on female's body and dorsum-ventral movements of the female's abdomen while the male was inserting the embolus were documented to Aviculariinae for the first time. The courtships and mating lasted almost two minutes.
The genus Magulla Simon 1892 is revalidated and redescribed. The female of the type species M. obesa Simon 1892 is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. Magulla janeirus (Keyserling 1891) is considered a valid species. Magulla symmetrica Bucherl 1949 is transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock 1901, and considered a junior synonym of P. insulare (Mello-Leitao 1923). Additionally, two new species are described from Brazil: M. buecherli n. sp. from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo and M. brescoviti n. sp. from Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul.
The genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is revised. The type-species, T. nubilus Simon, 1892, is redescribed and three new species are described from the state of Bahia, Brazil: T. amadoi sp. nov., T. bethaniae sp. nov. and T. caymmii sp. nov. In addition, Tmesiphanthes physopus Mello-Leitão, 1926 and T. minensis Mello-Leitão, 1943 are transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901. T. chickeringi is considered species inquirenda.
The genus Guyruita gen. nov. and two new species from Brazil are described. Holothele waikoshiemi (Bertani & Araújo, 2005) from Venezuela is transferred here to the new genus. Guyruita gen. nov. differs from the remaining Ischnocolinae by the following features: labium densely occupied by a lot of cuspules (more than 100), intercheliceral intumescence absent, posterior sternal sigilla remote from margin, tarsal claws without teeth, tarsal scopula I-II undivided (tarsus II with a line of sparse setae, which does not divide the scopula), III-IV divided.
A new species of the genus Ephebopus Simon, 1892, E. uatuman, is described from the Amazonean Region of Brazil. Concerning E. violaceus Mello Leitao, 1930, type misplaced or lost despite registered in the Arachnological Collection of the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we conclude, after the short description of the author, that this species exhibit characteristics of the genus Avicularia, since the first ocular row is very procurve. The total length of only 23mm, the design on the dorsal side of the abdomen and the division of the posterior tarsal scopulae suggests that the specimen is a juvenile. Therfore two are the Brazilian species of the genus Ephebopus: E. murinus and E. uatuman.