Two new species of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 are described from Brazil and Bolivia, D. mottai sp. n. from Distrito Federal and the state of Goiás, Brazil, and D. camargorum sp. n. from the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and the La Paz region, Bolivia. Males of the two new species resemble Dolichothele bolivianum (Vol, 2001) in having a small subapical keel on the distal embolus and females in particular by the short spermatheca. Dolichothele bolivianum is redescribed, and its geographical distribution is herein restricted to Bolivia and the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.
Two new species of the genus Tmesiphantes from Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais are described. They comprise the first records of the genus outside the Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, the examination of all type material of the genera Tmesiphantes and Melloleitaoina, which have been suggested as sister groups, showed that the thickness of femur III, used to distinguish between them, shows a continuous variation, and the taxonomic usage of this character is discussed.
Two new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock 1901 are described from Brazil: Pamphobeteus crassifemur sp. nov. and
Pamphobeteus grandis sp. nov.; Pamphobeteus nigricolor, formerly described from Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia, is
recorded from Brazil and its distribution in Ecuador and Bolivia is questioned. A new type of stridulatory organ is
described from legs III and IV of P. crassifemur sp. nov. The structure consists of spiniform setae. Stridulation occurs
when the spider moves the legs III and IV, sometimes while shedding urticating hairs.
The genus Cyriocosmus
Simon, 1903 is revised based on most types and additional material from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Tobago Island and Venezuela. Two species are newly described from Brazil: Cyriocosmus
nogueira-netoi and Cyriocosmus fernandoi
. The species Cyriocosmus fascia-tus
(Mello-Leitão, 1930), formerly synonymized with Cyriocosmus elegans
, is revalidated. Metrio-pelma nigriventris
(Mello-Leitão, 1939) and Cyriocosmus butantan
Pérez-Miles, 1998 are transferred to Hapalopus
Ausserer, 1875, proposing Hapalopus nigriventris
(Mello-Leitão, 1939) new combination and Hapalopus butantan
(Pérez-Miles, 1998) new combination. The female of Hapalopus butantan
is described for the first time. All 11 species of Cyriocosmus
are diagnosedand keyed. A cladistic analysis with 28 characters and 19 taxa was carried out. Searches using three phylogenetic packages found a single, totally resolved tree with the same topology.
The monotypic Brazilian genus Sickius
Soares & Camargo 1948 is revalidated, rediagnosed, and tentatively transferred to the Ischnocolinae
. The formerly unknown female of S. longibulbi Soares & Camargo 1948 is found to lack spermathecae. This unusual genital feature, not found in any other mygalomorph spider species, is described and discussed.
A new species of the genus Ephebopus Simon, 1892, E. uatuman, is described from the Amazonean Region of Brazil. Concerning E. violaceus Mello Leitao, 1930, type misplaced or lost despite registered in the Arachnological Collection of the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we conclude, after the short description of the author, that this species exhibit characteristics of the genus Avicularia, since the first ocular row is very procurve. The total length of only 23mm, the design on the dorsal side of the abdomen and the division of the posterior tarsal scopulae suggests that the specimen is a juvenile. Therfore two are the Brazilian species of the genus Ephebopus: E. murinus and E. uatuman.