Peter Jäger


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Tackling taxonomic redundancy in spiders: the infraspecific spider taxa described by Embrik Strand (Arachnida: Araneae)

Wolfgang Nentwig, Theo Blick, Daniel Gloor, Peter Jäger, Christian Kropf ,2019

Strand considered each deviation of specimens from the original description in colouration, body size and shape, eye pattern or leg spination as sufficient to describe infraspecific taxa such as subspecies, varieties, forms and aberrations. Following this problematic approach, he erected 165 infraspecific names which may reflect phenetics rather than evolutionary history. The aim of this paper is to review the 102 still valid names according to current taxonomic standards. Here we declare 39 subspecies as new synonyms of the nominate form, we confirm 10 previously overlooked synonymies of subspecies with the nominate form, and 26 taxa are nomina dubia (some described from juveniles or type material destroyed afterwards). In 24 cases we recommend in-depth taxonomic studies on subspecies and species complexes (subspecies and species inquirenda), in 3 cases we concluded on stat. nov. In detail, we propose the following changes: Acanthoctenus impar pygmaeus Strand, 1909 = Nothroctenus marshi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) syn. nov.; Agelena jumbo kiwuensis Strand, 1913 = Mistaria kiwuensis (Strand, 1913) stat. nov.; Aranea börneri clavimacula Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea börneri obscurella Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani octopunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani octopunctigera (Strand, 1911) subspecies inquirenda; Aranea dehaani pygituberculata Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani quadripunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis fuscinotum Strand, 1908 = Neoscona fuscinotum (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis nigrodecorata Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis punctipedella Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis strigatella Strand, 1908 = Neoscona strigatella (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea theisi feisiana Strand, 1911 = Neoscona theisi syn. nov.; Aranea triangula mensamontella Strand, 1907 = Neoscona triangula (Keyserling, 1864) syn. nov.; Asagena tristis ruwenzorica Strand, 1913 = nomen dubium; Camaricus nigrotesselatus lineitarsus Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Clubiona abbajensis karisimbiensis Strand, 1916 = Clubiona abbajensis Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Clubiona abbajensis maxima Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Corinna sanguinea inquirenda Strand, 1906 = Corinna sanguinea Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Ctenus peregrinus sapperi Strand, 1916 = Ctenus peregrinus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 syn. nov.; Cyrtarachne tricolor aruana Strand, 1911 = Cyrtarachne tricolor (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora citricola abessinensis Strand, 1906 = Cyrtophora citricola (Forsskål, 1775) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis albidinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis bukae Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis rubicundinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora viridipes scalaris Strand, 1915 = Cyrtophora cylindroides (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Damastes coquereli affinis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha aruana antemaculata Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha aruana keyana Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi trivittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi univittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha lepida rueppelli Strand, 1916 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha signifera bistrigella Strand, 1911, Gasteracantha signifera heterospina Strand, 1915, Gasteracantha signifera pustulinota Strand, 1911 = subspecies inquirenda; Gasteracantha strasseni anirica Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha pentagona (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata bawensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata jamurensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata maculella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata obsoletopicta Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata oinokensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata sentanensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha theisi quadrisignatella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gnaphosa lapponum inermis Strand, 1899 = Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866) syn. nov.; Heteropoda pedata magna Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda submaculata torricelliana Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda sumatrana javacola Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda venatoria pseudoemarginata Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteroscodra crassipes latithorax Strand, 1920 = Heteroscodra crassipes Hirst, 1907 syn. nov.; Hysterocrates affinis angusticeps Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Isopeda inola carinatula Strand, 1913 = Isopedella inola (Strand, 1913) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata anirensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata bukaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata maitlandensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata mathiasensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata salomonum Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata squallyensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata tomaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Linyphia pusilla quadripunctata Strand, 1903 = Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830) syn. conf.; Lithyphantes paykulliana obsoleta Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Steatoda); Lycosa fastosa viota Strand, 1914 = Pardosa fastosa (Keyserling, 1877) syn. nov.; Lycosa palustris islandica Strand, 1906 = Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) syn. nov.; Lycosa proxima antoni Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima antoni (Strand, 1915) nomen dubium; Lycosa proxima annulatoides Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima annulatoides (Strand, 1915) subspecies inquirenda; Medmassa humilis reichardti Strand, 1916 = Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard- Cambridge, 1869) syn. nov.; Myrmarachne maxillosa septemdentata Strand, 1907 = Toxeus septemdentatus (Strand, 1907) stat. nov. et comb. nov.; Nephila maculata malagassa Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Olios lamarcki taprobanicus Strand, 1913 = Olios taprobanicus Strand, 19013 stat. nov.; Oxyopes embriki Roewer, 1951 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes javanus nicobaricus Strand, 1907 = Oxyopes javanus Thorell, 1887 syn. nov.; Oxyopes variabilis dorsivittatus Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis nigriventris Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Ozyptila trux devittata Strand, 1901 = nomen dubium; Panaretus chelata vittichelis Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium (in Heteropoda); Paraplectana thorntoni occidentalis Strand, 1916 = Paraplectana thorntoni (Blackwall, 1865) syn. nov.; Paraplectana walleri ashantensis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Pediana regina isopedina Strand, 1913 = Pediana horni (Hogg, 1896) syn. conf.; Phlegra bresnieri meridionalis Strand, 1906 = Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846) syn. nov.; Phrynarachne rugosa infernalis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium ; Regillus cinerascens sumatrae Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Scytodes quattuordecemmaculatus clarior Strand, 1907 = Scytodes quattuordecemmaculata Strand, 1907 syn. nov.; Spilargis ignicolor bimaculata Strand, 1909 = Spilargis ignicolor Simon, 1902 syn. nov.; Synema imitator (Pavesi, 1883) = Synema imitatrix (Pavesi, 1883) correction; Synema imitatrix meridionale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Tarentula hispanica dufouri Strand, 1916 = Lycosa hispanica dufouri Simon, 1876 correction, subspecies inquirenda; Theridion inquinatum continentale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Thomisus albus meridionalis Strand, 1907 = Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805 syn. nov.