Mygalomorph spiders are rarely found in caves and most of the records appear as accidental
or restricted to small populations. The present study took place in iron formations
in Carajás region, southeastern Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon rainforest.
Each cave was sampled twice: dry season (from May to October) and wet season (from
November to April). Of the 242 caves sampled, we found mygalomorphs in 98 (40%).
The survey yielded 254 specimens, 223 (87.8%) juveniles. Of the 14 species recorded,
nine were represented by adults: Dolichothele tucuruiense (Guadanucci, 2007), Hapalopus
aymara Perdomo, Panzera & Pérez-Miles, 2009, Acanthoscurria geniculata (CL
Koch, 1841), Theraphosa blondi (Latreille, 1804), Nhandu coloratovillosus (Schmidt,
1998), Fufius minusculus Ortega, Nagahama, Motta & Bertani, 2013, and three new
are species described here: Guyruita metallophila n. sp., Hapalopus serrapelada n. sp.,
and Idiops carajas n. sp. Five other “morphospecies” were represented by juveniles
only: Ummidia sp. (Ctenizidae), Paratropis sp. (Paratropididae), Bolostromus sp. (Cyrtaucheniidae),
Diplura sp. (Dipluridae), and Idiophtalma sp. (Barychelidae). The high
number of juveniles suggests two alternatives: some species could be using the hypogean
environment as reproductive shelter; the hypogean environment is used as a refuge
by immatures. Two species appear to be troglophiles: G. metallophila and H. aymara.
The genus Holothele Karsch, 1879 has a confusing taxonomic history, mainly due to a imprecise and
outdated generic diagnosis, perpetuated since its original description. In this work, we propose a new
diagnosis for the genus, redescribe the type species Holothele recta Karsch, 1879 and propose a few
taxonomic changes. Holothele longipes is here considered as a senior synonym of Holothele recta Karsch,
1879, Stichoplastus sanguiniceps F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898, Dryptopelmides rondoni Lucas & Bücherl,
1972, Dryptopelmides ludwigi Strand, 1907. We also provide updated geographic distribution records
for Holothele longipes and propose the revalidation of Scopelobates Simon, 1903.
The new genus Neoholothele
is herein described based on the results of a recent phylogenetic analysis. This phylogeny, which included representatives of all Theraphosidae
subfamilies, showed that the genus Holothele
, as hitherto defined, does not comprise a monophyletic group. Neoholothele
gen. nov. is diagnosed by the following features: males and females with dark carapace and golden cephalic region; females with striped color pattern on the abdomen dorsum and long and slender spermathecae receptacula; males with retrolateral branch of male tibial spur with apical end wider than proximal end (synapomorphy), with two apical spines. It comprises two species: N. incei
(F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898) comb. nov. and N. fasciaaurinigra
sp. nov., both from northern South America.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated, based on eight male specimens collected at the Una Biological Reserve, southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It is distinguished by the morphology of male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis. The new species is very small and is the smallest theraphosid described to date (body length 5.5 mm). It is distinguished from congeners by the size, which vary from 12 mm (T. riopretano) to 23.8 mm (T.
nubilus) in other species of the genus, aspect of palpal bulb, sternal posterior sigillae close to sternal margin and by the aspect of tibial apophysis which lacks the prolateral branch. Tmesiphantes presently comprises nine species. Sixth have been described for the southern region of Bahia, a well known area of endemism in the Atlantic Forest. Identification keys for Tmesiphantes males and females are presented.
The genus Euthycaelus Simon 1889 is diagnosed based on the examination of type-material and additional material from Venezuela and Colombia. The genus now includes: Euthycaelus colonicus Simon 1889, E. norae sp. nov., E. amandae sp. nov.; Euthycaelus steini Simon 1889 is transferred to Psalistops comb. nov. The genus Schismatothele Karsch 1879 is considered a senior synonym of Hemiercus Simon 1903. Schismatothele includes S. lineata Karsch 1879, S. inflata (Simon 1889) comb. nov., S. modesta (Simon 1889) comb. nov, and S. benedettii Panzera et al. 2011. Hemiercus proximus Mello-Leitão 1923, from Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, is transferred to Acanthoscurria proxima (Mello-Leitão 1923) comb. nov. Hemiercus kastoni Caporiacco 1955 is considered a species inquirenda pending the examination of the type material.
The genus Ischnocolus is redefined based on type material, and extra specimens. Representatives of the genus are distinguished by clavate tarsal trichobothria arranged in median apical row; by the maxillae with lighter colour on prolateral edge. Males of the genus Ischnocolus Ausserer are recognized by the cheliceral intumescence, sigmoid ventral furrow on palpal tibia, unequal cymbium lobes, tibial apophysis absent, great number of spines on ventral side of tibia I, and male superior tarsal claws bipectinate. Species included are: Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour) [= I. holosericeus L. Koch, I. triangulifer Ausserer, I. algericus Thorell, I. fuscostriatus Simon, I. maroccanus (Simon), I. mogadorensis (Simon), I. numidus Simon, I. tripolitanus Caporiacco, Avicularia andalusiaca Simon], Ischnocolus hancocki Smith, Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch (senior-synonym of Chaetopelma adenense Simon) and Ischnocolus ignoratus sp. nov. Ischnocolus tomentosus Thorell is considered incertae sedis. The following species are considered species inquirenda: I. tunetanus Pavesi and I. fasciculatus Strand.
Two new species of the genus Tmesiphantes from Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais are described. They comprise the first records of the genus outside the Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, the examination of all type material of the genera Tmesiphantes and Melloleitaoina, which have been suggested as sister groups, showed that the thickness of femur III, used to distinguish between them, shows a continuous variation, and the taxonomic usage of this character is discussed.
The genus Oligoxystre
was originally established in 1924 for O. auratum
Vellard 1924 from southern state of Goia´s, Central Brazil. Today, the genus includes seven species: O. auratum
, O. caatinga
Guadanucci 2007, O. bolivianum
(Vol 2001), O. tucuruiense
Guadanucci 2007, O. rufoniger
Guadanucci 2007, O. dominguense
Guadanucci 2007, and O. diamantinensis
Bertani et al. 2009. Oligoxystre mineirum
new species, from the Atlantic forest domain is described here. The cladistic analysis resulted in a single tree: (O.caatinga
))))). According to the area cladogram obtained, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the origin of the Cerrado fauna is monophyletic; the occurrence of two sympatric species in Caatinga is due to different events; and the diversity of
Oligoxystre in Serra do Espinhac¸o (O. rufoniger
, O. diamantinensis
and O. mineirum
) is probably the result of the contact of the typical fauna of each bioma (Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Forest).
The genus Magulla Simon 1892 is revalidated and redescribed. The female of the type species M. obesa Simon 1892 is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. Magulla janeirus (Keyserling 1891) is considered a valid species. Magulla symmetrica Bucherl 1949 is transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock 1901, and considered a junior synonym of P. insulare (Mello-Leitao 1923). Additionally, two new species are described from Brazil: M. buecherli n. sp. from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo and M. brescoviti n. sp. from Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul.
Chaetopelma Ausserer 1871 and Nesiergus Simon 1903 are revised. Cratorrhagus Simon 1891 is considered a junior synonym of Chaetopelma. Cratorrhagus tetramerus (Simon 1873) and the female of Cratorrhagus concolor (Simon 1873) are conspecific with C. olivaceum (C. L. Koch 1841). Ischnocolus gracilis Ausserer 1871, Ischnocolus syriacus Ausserer 1871, Chaetopelma shabati Hassan 1950 and Ischnocolus jerusalemensis Smith 1990 are also treated here as junior synonyms of C. olivaceum. Chaetopelma adenense Simon 1890 is proposed as a junior synonym of Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch 1875. Chaetopelma gardineri Hirst 1911 is transferred to Nesiergus. Hence, Chaetopelma comprises three valid species: C. olivaceum (C. L. Koch 1841); C. karlamani Vollmer 1997; C. concolor (Simon 1873) n. comb. from the Middle East and northeastern Africa. Nesiergus, which appears endemic to the Seychelles archipelago, now comprises three valid species: N. gardineri (Hirst 1911) n. comb.; N. halophilus Benoit 1978; N. insulanus Simon 1903.
The genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is revised. The type-species, T. nubilus Simon, 1892, is redescribed and three new species are described from the state of Bahia, Brazil: T. amadoi sp. nov., T. bethaniae sp. nov. and T. caymmii sp. nov. In addition, Tmesiphanthes physopus Mello-Leitão, 1926 and T. minensis Mello-Leitão, 1943 are transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901. T. chickeringi is considered species inquirenda.
The genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 is revised. Pseudoligoxystre Vol 2001 is synonymized with Oligoxystre and its typespecies, P. bolivianum Vol 2001, is considered valid. The type-specimen of Oligoxystre auratum Vellard 1924, type-species by original designation, is considered lost. No additional material matching the original description was found and
therefore the species is diagnosed from the original description. Four new species, all from Brazil, are also described: O. caatinga, O. dominguense, O. tucuruiense, and O. rufoniger. Data on natural history of O. bolivianum from field and captivity observations are presented. The genus Cenobiopelma Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1934 ) is based upon Cenobiopelma mimeticum Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1934 for which no type was ever designated and hence both are considered nomina nuda.
The genus Guyruita gen. nov. and two new species from Brazil are described. Holothele waikoshiemi (Bertani & Araújo, 2005) from Venezuela is transferred here to the new genus. Guyruita gen. nov. differs from the remaining Ischnocolinae by the following features: labium densely occupied by a lot of cuspules (more than 100), intercheliceral intumescence absent, posterior sternal sigilla remote from margin, tarsal claws without teeth, tarsal scopula I-II undivided (tarsus II with a line of sparse setae, which does not divide the scopula), III-IV divided.
The new Ischnocolinae genus Catumiri
is described. The species Cenobiopelma argentinense
(Mello-Leitão, 1934), considered a junior synonym of Oligoxystre Vellard
, 1924, is transferred to the present genus. Three new species are also described: C. chicaoi
n. sp., from south of Bahia, Una; C. petropolium
n. sp., from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro (type species); and C. uruguayense
n. sp., from Lavalleja, Uruguay. Diagnosis, zoogeographical distribution and an identification key are provided for all species.