The type material of several Central American tarantulas
(Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a
broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch,
1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here,
we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for
a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb.
nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry
forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described
under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without
justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against
new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose
it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to
Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria
Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also
re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium
Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S.
lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central
American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which
we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This
species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin,
1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and
contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate
two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum
by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female
for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners.
Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus
meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context
of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb
morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.
The chaotic taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithoctoninae
Pocock, 1895 is partially addressed, with a focus on redefining
the arboreal genera Lampropelma Simon, 1892, Omothymus
Thorell, 1891, and Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895. Previous
works placing heavy emphasis on unstable taxonomic characters
are addressed and stable taxonomic features presented for the
clear delineation of males of arboreal ornithoctonine genera.
The male of Phormingochilus everetti Pocock, 1895 is described
for the first time. A new species, Omothymus rafni sp. nov.
is described from historical material collected in Sumatra.
Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 is transferred to
Omothymus based on comparative leg measurements and
geographical location comb. nov. Lampropelma nigerrimum
arboricola Schmidt & Barensteiner, 2015 is transferred to the
genus Phormingochilus with full species status acknowledged,
giving the new combination Phormingochilus arboricola
comb. nov. Omothymus thorelli Simon, 1901 is considered
a junior synonym of Omothymus schioedtei Thorell, 1891
syn. nov., based on similar morphology and geographical
locations. Phormingochilus carpenteri Smith & Jacobi, 2015
is transferred to the genus Lampropelma based on comparative
leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov.
Phormingochilus kirki Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is considered a
junior synonym of L. carpenteri syn. nov. Phormingochilus
fuchsi Strand, 1906 is transferred to the genus Omothymus based
on comparative leg measurement and geographic distribution
comb. nov. Phormingochilus tigrinus Pocock, 1895 is removed
from synonymy with P. everetti based on the lack of justification
for the synonymy comb. rest. Omothymus dromeus Chamberlin,
1917 is removed from Omothymus and returned to the restored
genus Melognathus comb. rest.
The recent rediscovery and examination of the holotype
of Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and its
comparison with type material of the genera Barropelma
Chamberlin, 1940 and Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 led us to
establish their generic synonymy. Ami species and the
monotypic Barropelma parvior (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)
fit with the diagnostic characters of Neischnocolus, with the
presence of modified type I urticating setae and the singular
spermathecal morphology. B. parvior is considered a junior
synonym of N. panamanus syn. nov. based on genital organ
morphology and geographical location. Ami bladesi Pérez-
Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 is also considered a junior
synonym of Neischnocolus panamanus syn nov. based on
genital organ morphology and geographical location. As a
consequence, of the synonymies of the genera Barropelma and
Ami with Neischnocolus, seven new combinations are created:
N. amazonica comb. nov., N. armihuarensis comb. nov., N.
caxiuana comb. nov., N. obscurus comb. nov., N. pijaos comb.
nov., N. weinmanni comb. nov. and N. yupanquii comb. nov.
Montenegro et al. (2018) reported the theraphosid spider genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile and described a new species of this genus with distinctive red and black colouration, naming it Homoeomma chilensis Montenegro & Aguilera, 2018. Soon after, Sherwood et al. (2018) described Homoeomma bicolor also from Chile having the same colouration. In this work, we demonstrate these nominal species to be synonymous and H. chilensis is regarded as the valid senior synonym of H. bicolor following the Article 23 of the Code (Anonymous 1999).
This case represents an instance where two independent scientific teams described the same taxon, in different journals published within a very short period of time of each other, respectively dated October and November of the same year, causing two available binominal names to exist for a single species (Anonymous 2019). Here we resolve this situation through synonymy, discuss an additional morphological character not mentioned in the original description by Montenegro et al. (2018) and note further intraspecific variation that exists for H. chilensis. Potential homonymy in Chilean theraphosid nomenclature is also discussed.
A new genus and species of the subfamily Selenocosmiinae Simon, 1892 are described from Sarawak, Borneo: Birupes simoroxigorum gen. et sp. nov. with discussion on the use of palpal bulb, spermathecae and stridulatory organ morphology in selenocosmiine systematics.
A new species of theraphosid spider from
Chile is described: Homoeomma bicolor sp. nov.
The female sex of Ami bladesi Pérez-Miles et al., 2008 is
described, based on three specimens from northeastern Costa
Rica and one specimen from the type locality in Panama. It is
the first record of this species and genus from Costa Rica. In
addition to the modified urticating hairs of type I, urticating
hairs of type III were found in both females and males from
Costa Rica and Panama. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and
behaviour of A. bladesi are included.
The holotype male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 is re-described and the female is described for the first time. Colour ontogeny, intraspecific morphological variation and sexual dimorphism are discussed and its biogeographical distribution mapped.
Cyclosternum bicolor (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) is regarded as the senior synonym of Cyriocosmus chicoi Pérez-Miles, 1998 as they share the same collecting site, same collector and same distinct abdominal pattern giving the new combination Cyriocosmus bicolor comb. nov.
The genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 are redefined. The genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 is removed from synonymy with Stichoplastus Simon, 1903, and the genus Eurypelmella Strand, 1907b is removed from synonymy with Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 gen. rest. The holotype specimens of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982, Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878, Schizopelma bicarinatum F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, and conspecifics of Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 are redescribed. Hapalopus ruficeps Simon, 1891 is removed from synonymy with Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 and, along with Cyclosternum fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 and Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, are transferred to the genus Davus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) comb. nov. Davus santos sp. nov. is described. Davus ruficeps is regarded as senior synonym of Metriopelma zebratum syn. nov., Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982 is regarded as junior synonym of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 syn. nov. Davus mozinna Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 is regarded as junior synonym of D. pentaloris syn. nov. The specimen of Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878 from the Natural History Museum, London, is formally nominated as topotype because the holotype is missing (see Discussion). Metriopelma familiare (Simon, 1889) and Metriopelma ledezmae Vol, 2000 are tentatively transferred to the genus Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871 comb. nov., while Metriopelma coloratus Valerio, 1982 and Metriopelma variegatus (Caporiacco, 1955) are transferred to the genus Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 combs. nov. Metriopelma velox Pocock, 1903, Lasiodora trinitatis (Pocock, 1903), and L. trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) are transferred to the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907a combs. nov. Metriopelma spinulosum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1899 is transferred back to the restored genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 comb. rest. along with Cyclosternum macropus Ausserer, 1875, Schizopelma sorkini Smith, 1995, and Lasiodora gutzkei Reichling, 1997, transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 combs. nov. Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) is redescribed. Lasiodora tetricus (Simon 1889) is transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 to the restored genus Miaschistopus Pocock, 1897 comb. rest. The genera Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, with its single species Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925, and Barropelma Chamberlin (1940), with its single species Barropelma parvior Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, are removed from the synonymy of Lasiodora and restored gen. rest.
The tarantula genus Sericopelma was originally defined based on male specimens, most notably lacking tibial spurs on leg I. Early female specimens were unrecognised as Sericopelma, and typically placed in Eurypelma – a dumping ground for problem specimens. The first females were only later recognised, but authors failed to adequately define female Sericopelma. Here, the holotypes of the Southern-most alleged Brachypelma species, B. embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and B. angustum Valerio, 1980 were examined, and finding both to possess defining characteristics of Sericopelma were transferred. The taxonomic attributes to define Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and select other Neotropical genera are discussed, especially for females. As important diagnostic characters for Sericopelma, the single (unilobar) spermathecae
swollen at the apex forming a P-shaped cross-section, metatarsus IV with trace scopula, femur IV with a dense retrolateral pad of plumose hair, plus other attributes. Some past confusion in these characters are clarified and Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and Megaphobema mesomelas are discussed. Finally recommendations are given about these taxonomic changes for CITES regulations.
Psalmopoeus rufus Petrunkevitch, 1925 is
relegated to a synonym of Psalmopoeus pulcher
Petrunkevitch, 1925. Psalmopoeus affinis Strand,
1907 is regarded as Nomen dubium.
In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.
A new species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 is described from Guyana. This species represents the first record of the genus from Guyana and brings the total number of theraphosid spider species recorded from Guyana to eleven.
A new genus Ami Pérez-Miles is proposed for six new species: A. caxiuana Pérez-Miles, Miglio & Bonaldo, from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brasil, the type species; A. yupanquii Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from the area of Puyo,
Equador; A. bladesi Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from Isla Colón, Panamá; A. pijaos Jimenez & Bertani, from Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia; A. amazonica Jimenez & Bertani, from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia; and A. weinmanni Pérez-Miles, from La Azulita, Apure, Venezuela. Avicularia obscura (Ausserer 1875) is transferred to Ami and re-diagnosed.
Diagnostic characters of Ami are the modification of Type I urticating hairs, with unusually longer area b, and one or two subconical processes on retrolateral face of male palpal tibiae. Females of Ami differ further from those of other theraphosid
genera by their highly characteristic spermathecae: paired ventral receptacles attached to an almost discrete, semicircular, sclerotized back-plate.