A new species of arboreal tarantula of the genus
Poecilotheria is described from Central India, The
new species Poecilotheria chaojii sp. nov. is most
similar to P. tigrinawesseli and P. formosa.
However, it can be distinguished from P. formosa
by possessing a band on the venter of leg IV
(absent in P. formosa) and from P. tigrinawesseli
in bearing bright white and black alternating
bands on venter of leg IV (cryptic coloured and
black alternating bands in P. tigrinawesseli),
basal 1/4 of metatarsi covered with white hair
(basal 1/3 of metatarsi covered with a black band
in P. tigrinawesseli), three thorn-like tubercles on
the prolateral face of the maxilla (two thorn-like
tubercles in P. tigrinawesseli).
The theraphosid spider genera Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Neoheterophrictus Siliwal & Raven, 2012 are rediagnosed in this paper and a new genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. is described from Southern Western Ghats. Four new species (two each of Heterophrictus and Neoheterophrictus) and one of Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. are described from the Western Ghats. Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 is removed from the synonymy of Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900 and is treated as a junior synonym of Heterophrictus blatteri (Gravely, 1935). Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 is transferred to the genus Neoheterophrictus, Neoheterophrictus bhori (Gravely, 1915) new combination. The genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov., resembles tarantula belonging to the genus, Neoheterophrictus but differs with respect to structure of tibial apophysis and spermathecae. Detailed ultra-structure of setae type of the Indian Eumenophorinae is presented for the first time along with notes on their biogeography. Common elements among Africa, Madagascar and India like the Eumenophorinae and several other mygalomorph spiders advocate mygalomorphae as an important group for evolutionary investigation due to their inability for long distance dispersal rendering the members restrictive in distribution.