Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 is a spider genus from the Caribbean islands characterized by the presence of stridulatory setae on trochanter of palps and legs I. Franganillo Balboa described eight species of Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 from Cuba between 1926–1936. The type-material is deposited in the Instituto de Ecología y Sistematica do Ministerio de Ciencias, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, La Habana, Cuba. Four species are redescribed here: Cyrtopholis plumosa Franganillo, 1931, Cyrtopholis major Franganillo, 1926, Cyrtopholis unispina Franganillo, 1926 and Cyrtopholis gibbosa Franganillo, 1936. Cyrtopholis ischnoculoformis Franganillo, 1926 is based on a juvenile specimen without stridulatory setae, and it is therefore considered here as species inquirenda. The type-material of two other species were not located: Cyrtopholis anacanta Franganillo, 1935 and Cyrtopholis obsoleta (Franganillo, 1935), and are considered to be lost. These two species are here considered as species inquirenda, since the original descriptions do not permit identification. Cyrtopholis respina Franganillo 1935 is considered a nomen dubium, due to the lack of a formal description and a doubtful citation.
The tarantula genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 (Theraphosinae) includes nine valid species, with records for the states of Bahia (T. nubilus, T. caymmii, T. amadoi, T. bethaniae, T. hypogeus, and T. mirim), Minas Gerais (T. perp and T. riopretano), and Pará (T. aridai), all in Brazil. In the present study, we reviewed the taxonomy of the Tmesiphantes species and performed a phylogenetic analysis using morphological characters. Four new species are described: T. amazonicus sp. nov., T. guayarus sp. nov., T. nordestinus sp. nov., and T. raulseixasi sp. nov., which expand the geographic distribution for the following states in Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Piauí, Paraíba, and Pernambuco, occurring in the Caatinga shrublands Cerrado savannas, Atlantic rain forest, and Brazilian Amazon. Phylogenetic analysis included 30 terminal taxa and 37 characters, including representatives of nine genera of Theraphosinae. The Tmesiphantes species formed a monophyletic group with the species hitherto included in Melloleitaoina and Magulla, with the latter being paraphyletic, which led us to propose the synonymy of these three genera. An updated diagnosis is proposed for the genus Tmesiphantes, which now comprises 19 species, occurring in major Brazilian biomes and in Argentina. A distribution map that includes all Tmesiphantes species and notes on their distributions are provided.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated, based on eight male specimens collected at the Una Biological Reserve, southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It is distinguished by the morphology of male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis. The new species is very small and is the smallest theraphosid described to date (body length 5.5 mm). It is distinguished from congeners by the size, which vary from 12 mm (T. riopretano) to 23.8 mm (T.
nubilus) in other species of the genus, aspect of palpal bulb, sternal posterior sigillae close to sternal margin and by the aspect of tibial apophysis which lacks the prolateral branch. Tmesiphantes presently comprises nine species. Sixth have been described for the southern region of Bahia, a well known area of endemism in the Atlantic Forest. Identification keys for Tmesiphantes males and females are presented.