Ray Gabriel


Revised taxonomic placement of some Mesoamerican Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, with description of three new species (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2020

Three new species of the genus Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895 are described from Central America: P. copanensis sp. nov. from Honduras, P. sandersoni sp. nov. from Belize, and P. petenensis sp. nov. from Guatemala. The taxonomic placement of other species within the Reduncus Group is addressed: P. intermedius Chamberlin, 1940 is redescribed and its type locality discussed, P. reduncus (Karsch, 1880) is redescribed from a lectotype and paralectotype designated herein, P. maya Witt, 1996 is consid- ered a species inquirenda based on the type series being absent from its stated repository, and additional morphological data for P. victori Mendoza, 2014 is detailed to complement the original description. Furthermore, a morphometric methodology for evaluation of female spermathecae is presented and its use in species delineation discussed.

Revised taxonomic placement of Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907, with notes on some related taxa (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2020

The taxonomic placement of species within the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907 is addressed and revised in a modern context alongside other similar taxa. The genotype Pseudhapalopus aculeatus Strand, 1907 is proposed as a species inquirenda. Cymbiapophysa gen. nov. is established to house Cymbiapophysa velox (Pocock, 1903) comb. nov. and Cymbiapophysa yimana sp. nov., based on palpal bulb, tibial apophyses, palpal tibial, and spermathecal morphology. Spinosatibiapalpus gen. nov. is established to house Spinosatibiapalpus spinulopalpus Schmidt & Weinmann, 1997 comb. nov., Spinosatibiapalpus tansleyi sp. nov. and Spinosatibiapalpus trinitatis comb. nov. based on palpal bulb, tibial apophyses, palpal tibial, and spermathecal morphology. Pseudhapalopus trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) is proposed as a junior synonym of Spinosatibiapalpus trinitatis syn. nov. based on indistinguishable palpal bulb, tibial apophysis, and palpal tibial morphology. Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is proposed as a nomen dubium due to the condition of the holotype and an inadequate original description. The monotypic species Miaschistopus tetricus (Simon, 1889) is redescribed with an emended generic diagnosis. New aspects of palpal bulb morphology are considered with introduction of novel terminology.

The first records of Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875) from Guyana and Panama (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel ,2019

Specimens of the widely distributed ischnocoline species Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875) are formally reported from Guyana and Panama for the first time, based on examination of material from the collections of Natural History Museum, London, Oxford University Museum of Natural History and Museo de Invertebrados G. B. Fairchild, Universidad de Panama.

Revised taxonomic status of some Mexican and Central American tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with transfers from Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901, and a new genus from the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica

Stuart J. Longhorn , Ray Gabriel ,2019

The type material of several Central American tarantulas (Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch, 1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here, we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb. nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S. lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin, 1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners. Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.

The revised taxonomic placement of some arboreal Ornithoctoninae Pocock, 1895 with description of a new species of Omothymus Thorell, 1891 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

The chaotic taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithoctoninae Pocock, 1895 is partially addressed, with a focus on redefining the arboreal genera Lampropelma Simon, 1892, Omothymus Thorell, 1891, and Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895. Previous works placing heavy emphasis on unstable taxonomic characters are addressed and stable taxonomic features presented for the clear delineation of males of arboreal ornithoctonine genera. The male of Phormingochilus everetti Pocock, 1895 is described for the first time. A new species, Omothymus rafni sp. nov. is described from historical material collected in Sumatra. Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 is transferred to Omothymus based on comparative leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov. Lampropelma nigerrimum arboricola Schmidt & Barensteiner, 2015 is transferred to the genus Phormingochilus with full species status acknowledged, giving the new combination Phormingochilus arboricola comb. nov. Omothymus thorelli Simon, 1901 is considered a junior synonym of Omothymus schioedtei Thorell, 1891 syn. nov., based on similar morphology and geographical locations. Phormingochilus carpenteri Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is transferred to the genus Lampropelma based on comparative leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov. Phormingochilus kirki Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is considered a junior synonym of L. carpenteri syn. nov. Phormingochilus fuchsi Strand, 1906 is transferred to the genus Omothymus based on comparative leg measurement and geographic distribution comb. nov. Phormingochilus tigrinus Pocock, 1895 is removed from synonymy with P. everetti based on the lack of justification for the synonymy comb. rest. Omothymus dromeus Chamberlin, 1917 is removed from Omothymus and returned to the restored genus Melognathus comb. rest.

Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, senior synonym of Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 and Barropelma Chamberlin, 1940 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

The recent rediscovery and examination of the holotype of Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and its comparison with type material of the genera Barropelma Chamberlin, 1940 and Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 led us to establish their generic synonymy. Ami species and the monotypic Barropelma parvior (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) fit with the diagnostic characters of Neischnocolus, with the presence of modified type I urticating setae and the singular spermathecal morphology. B. parvior is considered a junior synonym of N. panamanus syn. nov. based on genital organ morphology and geographical location. Ami bladesi Pérez- Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 is also considered a junior synonym of Neischnocolus panamanus syn nov. based on genital organ morphology and geographical location. As a consequence, of the synonymies of the genera Barropelma and Ami with Neischnocolus, seven new combinations are created: N. amazonica comb. nov., N. armihuarensis comb. nov., N. caxiuana comb. nov., N. obscurus comb. nov., N. pijaos comb. nov., N. weinmanni comb. nov. and N. yupanquii comb. nov.

A new synonymy in the genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with comments on potential homonymy

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2019

Montenegro et al. (2018) reported the theraphosid spider genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile and described a new species of this genus with distinctive red and black colouration, naming it Homoeomma chilensis Montenegro & Aguilera, 2018. Soon after, Sherwood et al. (2018) described Homoeomma bicolor also from Chile having the same colouration. In this work, we demonstrate these nominal species to be synonymous and H. chilensis is regarded as the valid senior synonym of H. bicolor following the Article 23 of the Code (Anonymous 1999). This case represents an instance where two independent scientific teams described the same taxon, in different journals published within a very short period of time of each other, respectively dated October and November of the same year, causing two available binominal names to exist for a single species (Anonymous 2019). Here we resolve this situation through synonymy, discuss an additional morphological character not mentioned in the original description by Montenegro et al. (2018) and note further intraspecific variation that exists for H. chilensis. Potential homonymy in Chilean theraphosid nomenclature is also discussed.

A new genus and species of theraphosid spider from Sarawak, Borneo (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

A new genus and species of the subfamily Selenocosmiinae Simon, 1892 are described from Sarawak, Borneo: Birupes simoroxigorum gen. et sp. nov. with discussion on the use of palpal bulb, spermathecae and stridulatory organ morphology in selenocosmiine systematics.

A new species of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2018

A new species of theraphosid spider from Chile is described: Homoeomma bicolor sp. nov.

Description of the female of Ami bladesi Pérez- Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with notes on its distribution, ecology, and behaviour

Witold Lapinski, Ray Gabriel, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2018

The female sex of Ami bladesi Pérez-Miles et al., 2008 is described, based on three specimens from northeastern Costa Rica and one specimen from the type locality in Panama. It is the first record of this species and genus from Costa Rica. In addition to the modified urticating hairs of type I, urticating hairs of type III were found in both females and males from Costa Rica and Panama. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and behaviour of A. bladesi are included.

Re-description of the male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 with the first description of the female (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2018

The holotype male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 is re-described and the female is described for the first time. Colour ontogeny, intraspecific morphological variation and sexual dimorphism are discussed and its biogeographical distribution mapped.

The revised taxonomical status of Cyclosternum bicolor (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2017

Cyclosternum bicolor (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) is regarded as the senior synonym of Cyriocosmus chicoi Pérez-Miles, 1998 as they share the same collecting site, same collector and same distinct abdominal pattern giving the new combination Cyriocosmus bicolor comb. nov.

Revised Taxonomic Placement of the Species in the Central American Genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, with Comments on Species in Related Genera (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2016

The genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 are redefined. The genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 is removed from synonymy with Stichoplastus Simon, 1903, and the genus Eurypelmella Strand, 1907b is removed from synonymy with Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 gen. rest. The holotype specimens of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982, Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878, Schizopelma bicarinatum F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, and conspecifics of Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 are redescribed. Hapalopus ruficeps Simon, 1891 is removed from synonymy with Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 and, along with Cyclosternum fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 and Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, are transferred to the genus Davus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) comb. nov. Davus santos sp. nov. is described. Davus ruficeps is regarded as senior synonym of Metriopelma zebratum syn. nov., Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982 is regarded as junior synonym of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 syn. nov. Davus mozinna Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 is regarded as junior synonym of D. pentaloris syn. nov. The specimen of Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878 from the Natural History Museum, London, is formally nominated as topotype because the holotype is missing (see Discussion). Metriopelma familiare (Simon, 1889) and Metriopelma ledezmae Vol, 2000 are tentatively transferred to the genus Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871 comb. nov., while Metriopelma coloratus Valerio, 1982 and Metriopelma variegatus (Caporiacco, 1955) are transferred to the genus Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 combs. nov. Metriopelma velox Pocock, 1903, Lasiodora trinitatis (Pocock, 1903), and L. trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) are transferred to the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907a combs. nov. Metriopelma spinulosum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1899 is transferred back to the restored genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 comb. rest. along with Cyclosternum macropus Ausserer, 1875, Schizopelma sorkini Smith, 1995, and Lasiodora gutzkei Reichling, 1997, transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 combs. nov. Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) is redescribed. Lasiodora tetricus (Simon 1889) is transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 to the restored genus Miaschistopus Pocock, 1897 comb. rest. The genera Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, with its single species Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925, and Barropelma Chamberlin (1940), with its single species Barropelma parvior Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, are removed from the synonymy of Lasiodora and restored gen. rest.

Revised generic placement of Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980, with definition of the taxonomic features for identification of female Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2015

The tarantula genus Sericopelma was originally defined based on male specimens, most notably lacking tibial spurs on leg I. Early female specimens were unrecognised as Sericopelma, and typically placed in Eurypelma – a dumping ground for problem specimens. The first females were only later recognised, but authors failed to adequately define female Sericopelma. Here, the holotypes of the Southern-most alleged Brachypelma species, B. embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and B. angustum Valerio, 1980 were examined, and finding both to possess defining characteristics of Sericopelma were transferred. The taxonomic attributes to define Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and select other Neotropical genera are discussed, especially for females. As important diagnostic characters for Sericopelma, the single (unilobar) spermathecae swollen at the apex forming a P-shaped cross-section, metatarsus IV with trace scopula, femur IV with a dense retrolateral pad of plumose hair, plus other attributes. Some past confusion in these characters are clarified and Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and Megaphobema mesomelas are discussed. Finally recommendations are given about these taxonomic changes for CITES regulations.

A new genus and species of theraphosid spider from El Salvador

Ray Gabriel ,2014

Revised taxonomic position of Psalmopoeus rufus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and Psalmopoeus affinis Strand, 1907 (Aranaeae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2014

Psalmopoeus rufus Petrunkevitch, 1925 is relegated to a synonym of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925. Psalmopoeus affinis Strand, 1907 is regarded as Nomen dubium.

On the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Felipe dos S. Paula, Ray Gabriel, Rafael Prezzi Indicatti, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Sylvia Marlene Lucas ,2014

In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.

A new species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 from Guyana (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2011

A new species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 is described from Guyana. This species represents the first record of the genus from Guyana and brings the total number of theraphosid spider species recorded from Guyana to eleven.

Ami, a new Theraphosid genus from Central and South America, with the description of six new species (Araneae: Mygalomorphae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Ray Gabriel, Laura Tavares Miglio, Alexandre Bonaldo, Richard C Gallon, Juan Jacobo Jimenez, Rogério Bertani ,2008

A new genus Ami Pérez-Miles is proposed for six new species: A. caxiuana Pérez-Miles, Miglio & Bonaldo, from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brasil, the type species; A. yupanquii Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from the area of Puyo, Equador; A. bladesi Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from Isla Colón, Panamá; A. pijaos Jimenez & Bertani, from Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia; A. amazonica Jimenez & Bertani, from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia; and A. weinmanni Pérez-Miles, from La Azulita, Apure, Venezuela. Avicularia obscura (Ausserer 1875) is transferred to Ami and re-diagnosed. Diagnostic characters of Ami are the modification of Type I urticating hairs, with unusually longer area b, and one or two subconical processes on retrolateral face of male palpal tibiae. Females of Ami differ further from those of other theraphosid genera by their highly characteristic spermathecae: paired ventral receptacles attached to an almost discrete, semicircular, sclerotized back-plate.

Species described or mentioned