Revised taxonomic status of some Mexican and Central American tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with transfers from Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901, and a new genus from the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica
Stuart J. Longhorn , Ray Gabriel
The type material of several Central American tarantulas
(Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a
broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch,
1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here,
we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for
a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb.
nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry
forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described
under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without
justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against
new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose
it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to
Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria
Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also
re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium
Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S.
lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central
American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which
we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This
species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin,
1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and
contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate
two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum
by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female
for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners.
Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus
meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context
of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb
morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.