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Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901: redescriptions, new species and records, description of a missing sex, with taxonomic notes and changes in Megaphobema Pocock, 1901 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Arachnology 19(6): 894-930
The type material of Pamphobeteus ultramarinus Schmidt, 1995 and P. vespertinus (Simon, 1889) are redescribed. The male of P. lapola Sherwood, Gabriel, Brescovit & Lucas, 2022 is described for the first time. Six new species are described: P. amazonas Sherwood, Gabriel, Peñaherrera-R., Cisneros-Heredia., León-E., Brescovit & Lucas sp. nov. from Brazil, and P. gangotenai Cisneros-Heredia, Peñaherrera-R., León-E., Sherwood, Gabriel, Brescovit & Lucas, sp. nov., P. jamacoaque Peñaherrera-R., Cisneros-Heredia., León-E., Sherwood, Gabriel, Brescovit & Lucas sp. nov., P. lasjuntas Peñaherrera-R., Cisneros- Heredia., León-E., Sherwood, Gabriel, Brescovit & Lucas sp. nov., P. matildeae Sherwood, Gabriel, Peñaherrera-R., Cisneros- Heredia., León-E., Brescovit & Lucas sp. nov., and P. skis León-E., Peñaherrera-R., Cisneros-Heredia, Sherwood, Gabriel, Brescovit & Lucas sp. nov. from Ecuador. We report, for the first time, the presence of Type III urticating setae in Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901. New interpretations of tibial apophysis morphology are presented, alongside a comparison of the palpal bulb morphology of all known male congeners. New distribution and/or museum records are made for P. antinous Pocock, 1903, P. crassifemur Bertani, Fukushima & Silva, 2008, P. lapola, and P. urvinae Sherwood, Gabriel, Brescovit & Lucas, 2022. Pamphobeteus petersi Schmidt, 2002 is illustrated and transferred to the genus Megaphobema Ausserer, 1875, based on palpal bulb morphology, and proposed as a junior synonym of Megaphobema velvetosoma Schmidt, 1995 syn. nov. Two Costa Rican species currently housed in Megaphobema are found to be misplaced, based on genital, femoral, and stridulation organ morphology, and are transferred to Abdomegaphobema gen. nov., Thus creating the new combinations Abdomegaphobema mesomelas (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) comb. nov. and Abdomegaphobema peterklaasi (Schmidt, 1994) comb. nov.

Two new species of Vitalius (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the restingas of the states of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Sergipe, Brazil

Brazil. Zoologia 40(e23001): 1-17
Brazil is the country with the most diverse tarantula (Theraphosidae) fauna, having 215 described species. Vitalius Lucas, Silva Júnior & Bertani, 1993 is one of the most diverse and common genera in Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions of Brazil with ten described species. Individuals of Vitalius species are large and widespread in areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A single species is known to occur in areas of Cerrado vegetation. Herein, two new species are described from areas of restinga, coastal areas typically with low vegetation and sandy soil, in the coast of the states of Rio de Janeiro (Vitalius restinga sp. nov.), Bahia and Sergipe (Vitalius sapiranga sp. nov.). Males and females of these two new species have a much longer than wide sternum. Males have a short apical keel in the male palpal bulb. The two species can be distinguished by embolus width, slender in V. restinga sp. nov. and thicker in V. sapiranga sp. nov. Females can be distinguished by the spermathecae shape, slender in V. restinga sp. nov. and broader in V. sapiranga sp. nov. These are the first known theraphosids endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Coast restingas. Biological data indicate V. sapiranga sp. nov. and maybe V. restinga sp. nov. commonly use bromeliads as retreats. It is herein hypothesized they are sister species occupying similar habitats in Brazilian coast, but separated by ca. 1,000 kilometers.