Systematic revision of Mexican threatened tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with a description of a new genus, and implications on the conservation

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Oscar F. Francke ,2019

The tarantula genus Brachypelma includes colourful species that are highly sought after in the commercial pet trade. They are all included in CITES appendix II. We present phylogenetic analyses using molecular and morphological characters to revise Brachypelma, in which we include all currently known species. Our results agree with a previous study that shows the non-monophyly of Brachypelma. Both phylogenies strongly favour the division of Brachypelma into two smaller genera. The first clade (Brachypelma s.s.) is formed by B.albiceps, B. auratum, B. baumgarteni, B. boehmei, B. emilia, B. hamorii, B. klaasi and B. smithi. The species included in the second clade are transferred to the new genus Tliltocatl and is formed by T. albopilosum comb. nov., T. epicureanum comb. nov., T. kahlenbergi comb. nov., T. sabulosum comb. nov., T. schroederi comb. nov., T. vagans comb. nov. and T. verdezi comb. nov. Both genera can be differentiated by their coloration and the shape of the genitalia. We transfer to Tliltocatl: T. alvarezi, T. andrewi and T. aureoceps, but should be considered as nomina dubia. In addition, we transfer B. fossorium to Stichoplastoris. We discuss the implications of these taxonomical changes for CITES and for the Mexican Laws for wildlife protection.

A new species of Aphonopelma (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) from the Madrean pine-oak woodlands of northeastern Sonora, Mexico

Brent E. Hendrixson ,2019

The tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 has received considerable attention in recent years but the group’s diversity remains poorly understood in Mexico, particularly in the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and associated Madrean “Sky Islands”. A pair of tarantulas discovered from an unsampled region in the Sierra de Bacadéhuachi (the westernmost range of the Sierra Madre Occidental) in northeastern Sonora was found to be closely related to four species from the Madrean “Sky Islands” in Arizona and New Mexico. An integrative approach for delimiting species (incorporating data from molecular phylogenetics, morphology, distributions, and breeding periods) suggests that the specimens from Sierra de Bacadéhuachi belong to an undescribed species that is herein named Aphonopelma bacadehuachi sp. nov. This new species adds to our knowledge of an increasingly diverse assemblage of Aphonopelma from the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Hotspot. Collaborations between Mexican and American researchers are needed to accelerate discovery and description of the group’s remaining diversity, particularly in light of the many threats facing the ecoregion including habitat degradation and climate change.

Tackling taxonomic redundancy in spiders: the infraspecific spider taxa described by Embrik Strand (Arachnida: Araneae)

Wolfgang Nentwig, Theo Blick, Daniel Gloor, Peter Jäger, Christian Kropf ,2019

Strand considered each deviation of specimens from the original description in colouration, body size and shape, eye pattern or leg spination as sufficient to describe infraspecific taxa such as subspecies, varieties, forms and aberrations. Following this problematic approach, he erected 165 infraspecific names which may reflect phenetics rather than evolutionary history. The aim of this paper is to review the 102 still valid names according to current taxonomic standards. Here we declare 39 subspecies as new synonyms of the nominate form, we confirm 10 previously overlooked synonymies of subspecies with the nominate form, and 26 taxa are nomina dubia (some described from juveniles or type material destroyed afterwards). In 24 cases we recommend in-depth taxonomic studies on subspecies and species complexes (subspecies and species inquirenda), in 3 cases we concluded on stat. nov. In detail, we propose the following changes: Acanthoctenus impar pygmaeus Strand, 1909 = Nothroctenus marshi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) syn. nov.; Agelena jumbo kiwuensis Strand, 1913 = Mistaria kiwuensis (Strand, 1913) stat. nov.; Aranea börneri clavimacula Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea börneri obscurella Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani octopunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani octopunctigera (Strand, 1911) subspecies inquirenda; Aranea dehaani pygituberculata Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani quadripunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis fuscinotum Strand, 1908 = Neoscona fuscinotum (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis nigrodecorata Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis punctipedella Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis strigatella Strand, 1908 = Neoscona strigatella (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea theisi feisiana Strand, 1911 = Neoscona theisi syn. nov.; Aranea triangula mensamontella Strand, 1907 = Neoscona triangula (Keyserling, 1864) syn. nov.; Asagena tristis ruwenzorica Strand, 1913 = nomen dubium; Camaricus nigrotesselatus lineitarsus Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Clubiona abbajensis karisimbiensis Strand, 1916 = Clubiona abbajensis Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Clubiona abbajensis maxima Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Corinna sanguinea inquirenda Strand, 1906 = Corinna sanguinea Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Ctenus peregrinus sapperi Strand, 1916 = Ctenus peregrinus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 syn. nov.; Cyrtarachne tricolor aruana Strand, 1911 = Cyrtarachne tricolor (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora citricola abessinensis Strand, 1906 = Cyrtophora citricola (Forsskål, 1775) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis albidinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis bukae Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis rubicundinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora viridipes scalaris Strand, 1915 = Cyrtophora cylindroides (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Damastes coquereli affinis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha aruana antemaculata Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha aruana keyana Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi trivittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi univittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha lepida rueppelli Strand, 1916 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha signifera bistrigella Strand, 1911, Gasteracantha signifera heterospina Strand, 1915, Gasteracantha signifera pustulinota Strand, 1911 = subspecies inquirenda; Gasteracantha strasseni anirica Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha pentagona (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata bawensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata jamurensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata maculella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata obsoletopicta Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata oinokensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata sentanensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha theisi quadrisignatella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gnaphosa lapponum inermis Strand, 1899 = Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866) syn. nov.; Heteropoda pedata magna Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda submaculata torricelliana Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda sumatrana javacola Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda venatoria pseudoemarginata Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteroscodra crassipes latithorax Strand, 1920 = Heteroscodra crassipes Hirst, 1907 syn. nov.; Hysterocrates affinis angusticeps Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Isopeda inola carinatula Strand, 1913 = Isopedella inola (Strand, 1913) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata anirensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata bukaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata maitlandensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata mathiasensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata salomonum Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata squallyensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata tomaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Linyphia pusilla quadripunctata Strand, 1903 = Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830) syn. conf.; Lithyphantes paykulliana obsoleta Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Steatoda); Lycosa fastosa viota Strand, 1914 = Pardosa fastosa (Keyserling, 1877) syn. nov.; Lycosa palustris islandica Strand, 1906 = Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) syn. nov.; Lycosa proxima antoni Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima antoni (Strand, 1915) nomen dubium; Lycosa proxima annulatoides Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima annulatoides (Strand, 1915) subspecies inquirenda; Medmassa humilis reichardti Strand, 1916 = Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard- Cambridge, 1869) syn. nov.; Myrmarachne maxillosa septemdentata Strand, 1907 = Toxeus septemdentatus (Strand, 1907) stat. nov. et comb. nov.; Nephila maculata malagassa Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Olios lamarcki taprobanicus Strand, 1913 = Olios taprobanicus Strand, 19013 stat. nov.; Oxyopes embriki Roewer, 1951 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes javanus nicobaricus Strand, 1907 = Oxyopes javanus Thorell, 1887 syn. nov.; Oxyopes variabilis dorsivittatus Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis nigriventris Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Ozyptila trux devittata Strand, 1901 = nomen dubium; Panaretus chelata vittichelis Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium (in Heteropoda); Paraplectana thorntoni occidentalis Strand, 1916 = Paraplectana thorntoni (Blackwall, 1865) syn. nov.; Paraplectana walleri ashantensis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Pediana regina isopedina Strand, 1913 = Pediana horni (Hogg, 1896) syn. conf.; Phlegra bresnieri meridionalis Strand, 1906 = Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846) syn. nov.; Phrynarachne rugosa infernalis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium ; Regillus cinerascens sumatrae Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Scytodes quattuordecemmaculatus clarior Strand, 1907 = Scytodes quattuordecemmaculata Strand, 1907 syn. nov.; Spilargis ignicolor bimaculata Strand, 1909 = Spilargis ignicolor Simon, 1902 syn. nov.; Synema imitator (Pavesi, 1883) = Synema imitatrix (Pavesi, 1883) correction; Synema imitatrix meridionale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Tarentula hispanica dufouri Strand, 1916 = Lycosa hispanica dufouri Simon, 1876 correction, subspecies inquirenda; Theridion inquinatum continentale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Thomisus albus meridionalis Strand, 1907 = Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805 syn. nov.

Another from Sri Lanka, after 126 years; Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from a fragmented forest patch in the wet zone of Sri Lanka

Ranil P. Nanayakkara, Amila Prasanna Sumanapala, Peter J. Kirk ,2019

The mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae is represented by 980 species in 144 genera globally (World Spider Catalogue 2018). Within the family Theraphosidae sites the genus Chilobrachys. The genus Chilobrachys is found in South and East Asia, with 27 described species to date (World Spider Catalogue 2018). They are ground dwelling spiders, living in burrows lined with silk and other debris (Nanayakkara, 2013, Nanayakkara 2014b). In Sri Lanka the genus is represented by only one species, namely Nanayakkara 2014b), which also happens to be the type species (species typica) for the genus.

The revised taxonomic placement of some arboreal Ornithoctoninae Pocock, 1895 with description of a new species of Omothymus Thorell, 1891 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

The chaotic taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithoctoninae Pocock, 1895 is partially addressed, with a focus on redefining the arboreal genera Lampropelma Simon, 1892, Omothymus Thorell, 1891, and Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895. Previous works placing heavy emphasis on unstable taxonomic characters are addressed and stable taxonomic features presented for the clear delineation of males of arboreal ornithoctonine genera. The male of Phormingochilus everetti Pocock, 1895 is described for the first time. A new species, Omothymus rafni sp. nov. is described from historical material collected in Sumatra. Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 is transferred to Omothymus based on comparative leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov. Lampropelma nigerrimum arboricola Schmidt & Barensteiner, 2015 is transferred to the genus Phormingochilus with full species status acknowledged, giving the new combination Phormingochilus arboricola comb. nov. Omothymus thorelli Simon, 1901 is considered a junior synonym of Omothymus schioedtei Thorell, 1891 syn. nov., based on similar morphology and geographical locations. Phormingochilus carpenteri Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is transferred to the genus Lampropelma based on comparative leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov. Phormingochilus kirki Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is considered a junior synonym of L. carpenteri syn. nov. Phormingochilus fuchsi Strand, 1906 is transferred to the genus Omothymus based on comparative leg measurement and geographic distribution comb. nov. Phormingochilus tigrinus Pocock, 1895 is removed from synonymy with P. everetti based on the lack of justification for the synonymy comb. rest. Omothymus dromeus Chamberlin, 1917 is removed from Omothymus and returned to the restored genus Melognathus comb. rest.

Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 is a nomen dubium, with review of some historic morphological characters ineffective at species delineation (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood ,2019

Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 is regarded as a nomen dubium due to the lack of a deposited holotype, an inadequate description which gives no stable taxonomic features to differentiate it from any other species and the absence of an exact type locality. The instability of some morphological characters which were given weight for species delineation in many earlier works is discussed and illustrated.

Revised taxonomic status of some Mexican and Central American tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with transfers from Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901, and a new genus from the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica

Stuart J. Longhorn , Ray Gabriel ,2019

The type material of several Central American tarantulas (Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch, 1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here, we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb. nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S. lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin, 1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners. Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.

Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, senior synonym of Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 and Barropelma Chamberlin, 1940 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

The recent rediscovery and examination of the holotype of Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and its comparison with type material of the genera Barropelma Chamberlin, 1940 and Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 led us to establish their generic synonymy. Ami species and the monotypic Barropelma parvior (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) fit with the diagnostic characters of Neischnocolus, with the presence of modified type I urticating setae and the singular spermathecal morphology. B. parvior is considered a junior synonym of N. panamanus syn. nov. based on genital organ morphology and geographical location. Ami bladesi Pérez- Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 is also considered a junior synonym of Neischnocolus panamanus syn nov. based on genital organ morphology and geographical location. As a consequence, of the synonymies of the genera Barropelma and Ami with Neischnocolus, seven new combinations are created: N. amazonica comb. nov., N. armihuarensis comb. nov., N. caxiuana comb. nov., N. obscurus comb. nov., N. pijaos comb. nov., N. weinmanni comb. nov. and N. yupanquii comb. nov.

A new synonymy in the genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with comments on potential homonymy

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2019

Montenegro et al. (2018) reported the theraphosid spider genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile and described a new species of this genus with distinctive red and black colouration, naming it Homoeomma chilensis Montenegro & Aguilera, 2018. Soon after, Sherwood et al. (2018) described Homoeomma bicolor also from Chile having the same colouration. In this work, we demonstrate these nominal species to be synonymous and H. chilensis is regarded as the valid senior synonym of H. bicolor following the Article 23 of the Code (Anonymous 1999). This case represents an instance where two independent scientific teams described the same taxon, in different journals published within a very short period of time of each other, respectively dated October and November of the same year, causing two available binominal names to exist for a single species (Anonymous 2019). Here we resolve this situation through synonymy, discuss an additional morphological character not mentioned in the original description by Montenegro et al. (2018) and note further intraspecific variation that exists for H. chilensis. Potential homonymy in Chilean theraphosid nomenclature is also discussed.

New collection records for Theraphosidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae) in Angola, with the description of a remarkable new species of Ceratogyrus

John M. Midgley, Ian Engelbrecht ,2019

During 2015 and 2016 several baboon spider specimens (Araneae: Theraphosidae) were collected in central Angola during surveys undertaken for the Okavango Wilderness Project. These collections represent range and habitat extensions for Pterinochilus Pocock, 1897, Ceratogyrus Pocock, 1897 and Phoneyusa Karsch, 1884. The new species Ceratogyrus attonitifer sp. n. is described from female specimens and the distribution of genera mapped. Central and eastern Angola is severely under sampled for theraphosid spiders, with every species collected during the survey either being potentially new to science or representing a significant range extension for the genus.

Schismatothelinae spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) from Colombia: four new species and an approach to their diversity

Dayana Valencia-Cuéllar, Carlos Perafán, Roberto J Guerrero, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2019

The spider subfamily Schismatothelinae from Colombia is revised. One new species of Euthycaelus Simon 1889 and three new species of Schismatothele Karsch 1879 are named, as well as new geographical records provided. E. guane sp. nov. from Santander, S. hacaritama sp. nov. from Norte de Santander, S. olsoni sp. nov. from Norte de Santander and Táchira (Venezuela), and S. weinmanni sp. nov. from Cundinamarca are herein described, diagnosed and illustrated. Schismatothele is newly recorded from Colombia. Morphological aspects and diversity of the Ischnocolinae and Schismatothelinae from Colombia are discussed. An identification key to species of these subfamilies from Colombia is provided.

Description of a new Chaetopelma (Araneae, Theraphosidae) species from Crete and a re-description of Macrothele cretica Kulczyński, 1903 (Araneae, Macrothelidae)

Maria Chatzaki, Marjan Komnenov ,2019

The family Theraphosidae is recorded from Greece for the first time with the description of a new species, Chaetopelma lymberakisi sp. n. Also, the male of Macrothele cretica Kulczyński, 1903 is re-described and the female of the same species is described for the first time.

Complementary data on the genus Ischnocolus (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Sergei L. Zonstein ,2018

The paper provides additional information on the taxonomy of the theraphosid genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871. A new combination is proposed: Ischnocolus elongatus (Simon, 1873), n. comb. (ex Cyrtauchenius). The hitherto unknown males of I. hancocki Smith, 1990 and I. jickelii (L. Koch, 1875) are depicted and described for the first time. Illustrations of the male palpal organ showing its structure in two remaining congeners, I. valentinus (Dufour, 1820) and I. ignoratus Guadanucci & Wendt, 2014, are also provided. The following synonymy is established: Mygale valentina Dufour, 1820 = Leptopelma cavicola Simon, 1889, n. syn. The taxonomic position of species, previously included in Leptopelma Ausserer, 1871, is briefly discussed.

Proshapalopus marimbai, a new tarantula species (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) and first genus record from Colombia

Carlos Perafán, Dayana Valencia-Cuéllar ,2018

A new species of Proshapalopus Mello-Leit~ao, 1923, distributed in the Southwest Colombia in the Choco Region, is described. A morphological cladistic analysis based on the previous matrix of a Theraphosinae group confirmed the inclusion of this species within Proshapalopus. The new species, Proshapalopus marimbai n. sp., can be distinguished from other species of the genus mainly by the reduced number of labial cuspules, around 40; in contrast the other species having over 100. Males can be distinguished by the thickened femur III, presence of intermediate urticating setae type I-III only, palpal bulb with a considerably long prolateral inferior keel (from ventral median depression to embolus apex) and the accessory keel pronounced distally. Females can be distinguished for lacking urticating setae type III and the non-incrassated tibia IV. This discovery constitutes the fourth species described for Proshapalopus and the first record for Colombia, expanding the geographical distribution of the genus, until now known for Brazil only. Other aspects of distribution and the phylogenetic relationship of the new species are also discussed here.

First record of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 in Chile and description of two new species

Rubén Montenegro V., Milenko A. Aguilera, María Eugenia Casanueva ,2018

Two new species of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from south-central Chile are described, diagnosed and illustrated based on males and females. Males of Homoeomma chilensis spec. nov. and H. orellanai spec. nov. differ from other species of the genus by the palpal bulb morphology. Females differ by the shape of spermathecae. Specimens were captured in regions of O’Higgins, Maule and Biobío, Chile. These are the first species of the genus recorded in the biogeographic province of Santiago, west of the Andes. This is a novel finding, given that until now, known species of Homoeomma are only present east of the Andes.

A first phylogenetic analysis reveals a new arboreal tarantula genus from South America with description of a new species and two new species of Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

Martin Hüsser ,2018

Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses a new genus of Theraphosidae is described, Pseudoclamoris gen. n. Tapinauchenius gigas and Tapinauchenius elenae are transferred to Pseudoclamoris and a new species of Pseudoclamoris from the Amazon Region is described: P. burgessi sp. n. Two new species of Tapinauchenius from the Caribbean are described: T. rasti sp. n. and T. polybotes sp. n. Tapinauchenius subcaeruleus is considered a nomen dubium. Psalmopoeinae subfamily is diagnosed based on molecular and morphological phylogenies, and Pseudoclamoris gen. n. and Ephebopus Simon, 1892 are included. A taxonomic key for Psalmopoeinae genera Tapinauchenius, Pseudoclamoris, Psalmopoeus, and Ephebopus is provided.

Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new tarantula spider genus from the Neotropical region (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae), with a description of eight new species

Fabio de F. Gargiulo, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Sylvia Marlene Lucas ,2018

Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new Theraphosinae genus with stridulatory bristles on the palpal trocanther of pedipalp trochanter and first leg, is proposed. The genus differs from the other genera with stridulatory bristles on the same segments, Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871, Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892, Longilyra Gabriel, 2014 and Nesipelma Schmidt & Kovarik, 1996, by having a palpal bulb with a very short and acuminate embolus and four short keels; separated tibial apophysis; and female spermathecae resembling those of Cyrtopholis, with two seminal receptacles with elongated ducts emerging from a common area. Cyrtopholis palmarum Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945 and C. schmidti Rudloff, 1996 from Brazil and Acanthoscurria acuminata Schmidt & Tesmoingt in Schmidt, 2005 from Bolivia are transferred to the new genus. The female of Umbyquyra palmarum (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) gen. et comb. nov. and the male of U. schmidti (Rudloff, 1996) gen. et comb. nov. are described for the first time. Cyrtopholis zorodes Mello-Leitão, 1923 is considered a junior synonym of Acanthoscurria gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Cyrtopholis meridionalis (Keyserling, 1891) is considered a nomen dubium. Eight new species from Brazil are described: Umbyquyra paranaiba gen. et sp. nov., U. cuiaba gen. et sp. nov., U. araguaia gen. et sp. nov., U. sapezal gen. et sp. nov., U. belterra gen. et sp. nov., U. caxiuana gen. et sp. nov., U. tucurui gen. et sp. nov. and U. tapajos gen. et sp. nov. Data and maps on the geographic distribution are provided.

The Neotropical genus Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with the description of seven new species and the highest altitude record for the family

Nelson Ferretti, Patricio E. Cavallo, Juan C. Chaparro, Duniesky Ríos Tamayo, Tracie A. Seimon, Rick C. West ,2018

New specimens of the genus Hapalotremus (Theraphosinae) are revised based on the examination of types and additional material collected in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. A new generic diagnosis is proposed. New information and illustrations are provided for known species and seven new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hapalotremus comprises 10 valid species, distributed along the Andes and Yungas in western South America. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and the detail of embolus keels morphology and positions are described for the first time for the genus. Information on species habitat is included. The highest altitude record for a Theraphosidae spider, living at 4524 m above sea level, is reported.

Description of the female of Ami bladesi Pérez- Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with notes on its distribution, ecology, and behaviour

Witold Lapinski, Ray Gabriel, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2018

The female sex of Ami bladesi Pérez-Miles et al., 2008 is described, based on three specimens from northeastern Costa Rica and one specimen from the type locality in Panama. It is the first record of this species and genus from Costa Rica. In addition to the modified urticating hairs of type I, urticating hairs of type III were found in both females and males from Costa Rica and Panama. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and behaviour of A. bladesi are included.

Re-description of the male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 with the first description of the female (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2018

The holotype male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 is re-described and the female is described for the first time. Colour ontogeny, intraspecific morphological variation and sexual dimorphism are discussed and its biogeographical distribution mapped.

Five new cave-dwelling species of Hemirrhagus Simon 1903 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae), with notes on the generic distribution and novel morphological features

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Oscar F. Francke ,2018

The suborder Mygalomorphae is generally poorly represented in the cave faunas of the world. The genus Hemirrhagus is endemic to Mexico and has 22 described species. It is the only one with epigean, troglophile and troglobitic species. Lack of urticating setae, loss of eye pigmentation and ocular reduction are interpreted as evolutionary reversals related to their troglobitic habits. From five troglobitic species in the genus, only the male of Hemirrhagus stygius is known. Five new troglobitic species are described with both sexes: Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov., Hemirrhagus billsteelei sp. nov., Hemirrhaugus diablo sp. nov., Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. The female of Hemirrhagus chilango is described for the first time. Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov. has a group of spinose setae on the opisthosoma; this setal modification was never reported in any other theraphosid spiders. Females of Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. lay fixed hammock egg sacs, which is an unusual behavior among species in Theraphosinae. Two stridulating setae previously reported only in epigean species are present on some of the new troglobites.

A new synonym in the subfamily Thrigmopoeinae Pocock, 1900 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Pradeep M. Sankaran, Pothalil Antony Sebastian ,2018

As the species Haploclastus devamatha Prasanth & Jose, 2014 is indistinguishable from Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus Sanap & Mirza, 2014, the latter is herein considered junior synonym of the former. Occurrence of polychromatism in H. devamatha is noted, and two distinct colour morphs of the species are recognised, a pink form and a blue form. The natural history and conservation of the species are discussed and its known distribution is updated.

Two new species of Guyruita Guadanucci et al., 2007 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Brazil

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani ,2018

Guyruita Guadanucci et al., 2007 is an ischnocoline genus with three described species from Brazil and Venezuela. Two new Brazilian species from the states of Rio Grande do Norte (Guyruita isae n. sp.) and Espírito Santo (Guyruita giupponii n. sp.) are described. A key is provided for identification of Guyruita species. Map with records and information on species habitat are also given.

Two new Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 species from Brazil and Bolivia (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Irene Soliz Revollo, Pedro Ismael da Silva Júnior, Rogério Bertani ,2017

Two new species of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 are described from Brazil and Bolivia, D. mottai sp. n. from Distrito Federal and the state of Goiás, Brazil, and D. camargorum sp. n. from the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and the La Paz region, Bolivia. Males of the two new species resemble Dolichothele bolivianum (Vol, 2001) in having a small subapical keel on the distal embolus and females in particular by the short spermatheca. Dolichothele bolivianum is redescribed, and its geographical distribution is herein restricted to Bolivia and the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.

Description of the male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 and a new species of Bistriopelma from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2017

The male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 is described and illustrated, the species is rediagnosed and complemented by new biogeographical data. Additionally, a new species of Bistriopelma, B. titicaca sp. nov., from the Puno region in Peru is described, diagnosed and illustrated. An updated general description and distribution map of Bistriopelma are provided.

Diversity of iron cave-dwelling mygalomorph spiders from Pará, Brazil, with description of three new species (Araneae)

Rafael Fonseca-Ferreira, Robson de Almeida Zampaulo, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2017

Mygalomorph spiders are rarely found in caves and most of the records appear as accidental or restricted to small populations. The present study took place in iron formations in Carajás region, southeastern Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Each cave was sampled twice: dry season (from May to October) and wet season (from November to April). Of the 242 caves sampled, we found mygalomorphs in 98 (40%). The survey yielded 254 specimens, 223 (87.8%) juveniles. Of the 14 species recorded, nine were represented by adults: Dolichothele tucuruiense (Guadanucci, 2007), Hapalopus aymara Perdomo, Panzera & Pérez-Miles, 2009, Acanthoscurria geniculata (CL Koch, 1841), Theraphosa blondi (Latreille, 1804), Nhandu coloratovillosus (Schmidt, 1998), Fufius minusculus Ortega, Nagahama, Motta & Bertani, 2013, and three new are species described here: Guyruita metallophila n. sp., Hapalopus serrapelada n. sp., and Idiops carajas n. sp. Five other “morphospecies” were represented by juveniles only: Ummidia sp. (Ctenizidae), Paratropis sp. (Paratropididae), Bolostromus sp. (Cyrtaucheniidae), Diplura sp. (Dipluridae), and Idiophtalma sp. (Barychelidae). The high number of juveniles suggests two alternatives: some species could be using the hypogean environment as reproductive shelter; the hypogean environment is used as a refuge by immatures. Two species appear to be troglophiles: G. metallophila and H. aymara.