The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former Avicularia species: Caribena gen. n., composed of Caribena laeta (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. and Caribena versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837), comb. n.; Antillena gen. n., with a single species, Antillena rickwesti (Bertani & Huff, 2013), comb. n., both from the Caribbean; and Ybyrapora gen. n., composed of Ybyrapora sooretama (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n., Ybyrapora gamba (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n. and Ybyrapora diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. from Brazilian rainforest. The subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 is elevated to species status, resulting in the combination Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.. The following new synonymies are established: Avicularia velutina Simon 1889, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930, and Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 are junior synonyms of A. avicularia; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 is a junior synonym of A. variegata stat. n., and Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994 is a junior synonym of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Species transferred to other genera: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849) is transferred to Euathlus Ausserer, 1875, making the new combination Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849), comb. n.; Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906 is transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906), comb. n.; Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) is transferred to Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916), comb. n.; Avicularia leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) and Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) are transferred to Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, making the new combinations Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841), comb. n. and Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n.; the two last species are considered nomina dubia. The following species are considered nomina dubia: Avicularia hirsutissima (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891 nomen dubium; Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) nomen dubium; Araneus hirtipes (Fabricius, 1787) nomen dubium; Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia walckenaerii (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia testacea (C. L. Koch, 1841) nomen dubium; Avicularia detrita (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus doleschalli Ausserer, 1871 nomen dubium; Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Avicularia rapax (Ausserer, 1875) nomen dubium; Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 nomen dubium; Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia huriana Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia braunshauseni Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia geroldi Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia soratae Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; and Avicularia surinamensis Strand, 1907 nomen dubium. Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778) is considered nomen nudum. Keys are provided for identification of all aviculariine genera, as well as to Avicularia, Caribena gen. n., Ybyrapora gen. n. and Antillena gen. n. species. Maps with records and information on species habitat are also presented. Lectotypes are newly designed for A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis, C. laeta comb. n., E. affinis comb. n. and a neotype is established for C. versicolor comb. n.
We describe a new species of tarantula from the highlands of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males of the new species can be distinguished from congeners by having palpal bulb keels weakly developed, and metatarsus I strongly curved, touching apex of retrolateral spur when folded. Females can be distinguished by the color pattern, carapace and legs black with conspicuous white rings on distal femora, patellae, tibiae, and metatarsi. The male of Pterinopelma felipeleitei sp. nov. was previously misidentified and described under the name Pterinopelma sazimai Bertani, Nagahama & Fukushima, 2011. The true male of P. sazimai is herein described from a specimen collected near the type locality. Similar to the conspecific female, this male has characteristic blue iridescent setae covering the carapace, chelicerae, legs, and palps. The new species is sympatric with P. sazimai . Both species inhabit a habitat locally known as 'campos rupestres'.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species.
A remarkable new species of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Avicularia rickwesti sp. nov., is described from Dominican Republic. Female specimens of the new species are unusual by having two very short and broad spermathecae with distal half strongly sclerotized, a feature not found in any other aviculariine. Additionally, it has the leg coxae with
spiniform setae, smaller on leg I and prolateral leg II, larger, black on retrolateral leg II, prolateral and retrolateral leg III and prolateral leg IV. Males are unknown. The new species is known only from two localities, in southwestern Dominican Republic. This is the first record for the subfamily on Hispañola which is close to the northern boundary for the Aviculariinae distribution.
Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., T. costae sp. n., T. curumim sp. n., T. paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., I. marcoi sp. n., I. oliveirai sp. n. and I. vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.
We revalidate the theraphosid genus Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, describe the female of P. vitiosum for first time and Pterinopelma
sazimai sp. nov. from Brazil. These two species were included in a matrix with 35 characters and 32 taxa and
were analyzed both with all characters having same weight and with implied weights. Searches considering all characters
non-additive or some additive were also carried out. The preferred tree, obtained with implied weights, concavity 6 and
all characters non-additive shows that Pterinopelma is a monophyletic genus sister to the clade Lasiodora (Vitalius +
Nhandu). The presence of denticles on the prolateral inferior male palpal bulb keel is a synapomorphy of the genus.
The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 1878), Avicularia parva (Keyserling 1878) and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of
Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost.
Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from State Bolivar, Venezuela.
The new species resembles Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 and A. maga Simon, 1892 but can be distinguished
by morphology of the male palpal organ and tibia I apophysis. The genus is recorded for the first time for Venezuela.
Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) known previously only from its original description is redescribed along with Avicularia sooretama sp. nov. and Avicularia gamba sp. nov. The three species are endemic to Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. With other Avicularia species, they share a procurved anterior eye row, slender embolus and medially folded spermathecae, whereas they have unusual characters, such as a very long and spiraled embolus (A. diversipes) and spermathecae with multilobular apex (A. sooretama sp. nov.). Furthermore, the three species lack a tibial apophysis in
males and share a distinctive color pattern ontogeny that is not known in any other Avicularia species. The conservation status of the three species is discussed, especially with respect to endemism, illegal trafficking and habitat destruction.
The creation of protected areas in southern State of Bahia, Brazil, is recommended, as well as the inclusion of these species in IUCN and CITES lists. Appendices with figures and species information are presented to facilitate correct specimen identification by custom officers, in order to limit illegal traffic.
A new species of Oligoxystre, Oligoxystre diamantinensis n. sp., is described from Brazil. Male can be distinguished from all other Oligoxystre species by the male palpal bulb lacking a small subapical keel on the embolus in conjunction with the embolus length (less than 2.5 times the tegulum length) and by the tibial spur being inserted in a perpendicular angle in relation to the tibia axis. Female can be distinguished by the spermathecae being much more longer than wide, lacking lateral lobes anda large terminal lobe with five smaller lobes around it. Additionally, males and females can be distinguished by the general blue metallic color pattern contrasting with the reddish setae on the abdomen. A key for all described Oligoxystre species is presented. The cladistic relationship of O. diamantinensis sp. n. with the other Oligoxystre species is discussed and data on its habitat is provided.
We describe Kochiana new genus to accommodate a small Brazilian theraphosine species described originally as Mygale brunnipes by Koch (1842), resulting in Kochiana brunnipes new combination. Recently, specimens were rediscovered in northeastern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. A preliminary cladistic analysis using equal weights parsimony and implied weights, was carried out to examine its phylogenetic placement. Kochiana new genus was monophyletic in all trees regardless of weighting scheme or concavity used. There is preliminary evidence for Kochiana new genus monophyly and weak evidence for its placement as sister group of Plesiopelma. Kochiana new genus can be characterized by the presence of a hornshaped spermatheca in females and males with a palpal bulb having prolateral accessory keels and a well developed medial crest on the embolus apex.
The tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 is reviewed and includes the type species, E. murinus (Walckenaer 1837),and E. uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani 1992, E. cyanognathus West & Marshall 2000, E. rufescens West & Marshall2000 and Ephebopus foliatus, sp. nov., from Guyana. Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão 1930 is transferred to Tap-inauchenius Ausserer, where it is a senior synonym of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt 1995 new synonymy. Ephebo-pus fossor Pocock 1903 is considered a nomen dubium. Ephebopus occurs in northeastern South America where it isknown only from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Spiders of the genus are generally fossorial; however,Ephebopus murinus has a developmental stage that is arboreal. A cladistic analysis of the Theraphosidae retrieves theAviculariinae as monophyletic, including Avicularia Lamarck, Iridopelma Pocock 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock 1901,Tapinauchenius, Psalmopoeus Pocock, Ephebopus, Stromatopelma Karsch and Heteroscodra Pocock, having as a syna-pomorphy the well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I–II that is very laterally extended.
A new genus Ami Pérez-Miles is proposed for six new species: A. caxiuana Pérez-Miles, Miglio & Bonaldo, from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brasil, the type species; A. yupanquii Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from the area of Puyo,
Equador; A. bladesi Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from Isla Colón, Panamá; A. pijaos Jimenez & Bertani, from Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia; A. amazonica Jimenez & Bertani, from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia; and A. weinmanni Pérez-Miles, from La Azulita, Apure, Venezuela. Avicularia obscura (Ausserer 1875) is transferred to Ami and re-diagnosed.
Diagnostic characters of Ami are the modification of Type I urticating hairs, with unusually longer area b, and one or two subconical processes on retrolateral face of male palpal tibiae. Females of Ami differ further from those of other theraphosid
genera by their highly characteristic spermathecae: paired ventral receptacles attached to an almost discrete, semicircular, sclerotized back-plate.
Two new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock 1901 are described from Brazil: Pamphobeteus crassifemur sp. nov. and
Pamphobeteus grandis sp. nov.; Pamphobeteus nigricolor, formerly described from Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia, is
recorded from Brazil and its distribution in Ecuador and Bolivia is questioned. A new type of stridulatory organ is
described from legs III and IV of P. crassifemur sp. nov. The structure consists of spiniform setae. Stridulation occurs
when the spider moves the legs III and IV, sometimes while shedding urticating hairs.
sp. n. (Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae) is described based
on two females and a juvenile from Venezuela. The new species is distinguished
by leg I being the longest limb, incrassate tibia I and spermathecae shape.
A new species, Phormictopus auratus
, is described. This species is character-
ized by presenting the apex of the retrolateral branch of the tibial spurs fla-
ttened, on which the metatarsus I makes contact when flexed; also by posses-
sing spermathecae well defined in three parts: the base, neck and fundus, and
finally for having the carapace covered by a fine and dense golden pubescence.
Natural history data of this species, collected in various regions of central-
eastern Cuba, are given. With this, the registered number of Cuban taxa pertai-
ning to the genus Phormictopus
is increased to four.
The genus Cyriocosmus
Simon, 1903 is revised based on most types and additional material from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Tobago Island and Venezuela. Two species are newly described from Brazil: Cyriocosmus
nogueira-netoi and Cyriocosmus fernandoi
. The species Cyriocosmus fascia-tus
(Mello-Leitão, 1930), formerly synonymized with Cyriocosmus elegans
, is revalidated. Metrio-pelma nigriventris
(Mello-Leitão, 1939) and Cyriocosmus butantan
Pérez-Miles, 1998 are transferred to Hapalopus
Ausserer, 1875, proposing Hapalopus nigriventris
(Mello-Leitão, 1939) new combination and Hapalopus butantan
(Pérez-Miles, 1998) new combination. The female of Hapalopus butantan
is described for the first time. All 11 species of Cyriocosmus
are diagnosedand keyed. A cladistic analysis with 28 characters and 19 taxa was carried out. Searches using three phylogenetic packages found a single, totally resolved tree with the same topology.
The monotypic Brazilian genus Sickius
Soares & Camargo 1948 is revalidated, rediagnosed, and tentatively transferred to the Ischnocolinae
. The formerly unknown female of S. longibulbi Soares & Camargo 1948 is found to lack spermathecae. This unusual genital feature, not found in any other mygalomorph spider species, is described and discussed.
The 16 species of the South American theraphosine genera Vitalius Lucas, Silva Junior & Bertani, 1993; Nhandu Lucas, 1981; and Proshapalopus Mello-Leitfio, 1923 are described, keyed, illustrated, diagnosed, and a cladistic analysis using 30 terminals and 35 characters is provided. Vitalius comprises nine species ofwhich 4 are newly described: Vitalius paranaensis, Y. longisternalis, Y. buecherli, andy' lucasae. Pterinopelma dubium Mello-Leimo, 1923 and P. vellutinum Mello-Leitfio, 1923 are removed from the synonymy of P. wacketi and these three species are transferred to Vitalius. Pamphobeteus communis Piza, 1939 is removed from the synonymy of Vitalius sorocabae Mello-Leitfio, 1923 and placed in the synonymy of Vitali us dubius (Mello-Leitfio, 1923); Pamphobeteus insularis Mello-Leitfio, 1923, Pamphobeteus masculus Piza, 1939 andPamphobeteus litoralis Piza, 1976 are removedfrom the synonymy of Vitali us platyomma (Mello-Leitfio, 1923) and placed in the synonymy of Vitali us wacketi (MeUo-Leitfio, 1923); Pamphobeteus cucullatus Mello-Leitfio, 1923, Pamphobeteus urbanicolus Soares, 1941, Pamphobeteus ypirangensis Soares, 1941, Pamphobeteus mus Piza, 1944, and Pamphobeteus cesteri (Mello-Leitfio, 1923) are placed in the synonymy of Vitalius dub ius (Mello-Leitfio, 1923); Pamphobeteus cephalopheus Piza, 1944 is removed from the synonymy of Vitali us roseus (Mello-Leitfio, 1923) and placed in the synonymy ofVitalius vellutinus (Mello-Leitfio, 1923). Pamphobeteus rondoniensis Mello-Leitfio, 1923; Pamphobeteus tetracanthus Mello-Leitfio, 1923; Pamphobeteus exsul Mello-Leitfio, 1923; and Pamphobeteus platyomma Mello-Leitfio, 1923 are considered "nomina dubia". The male of V. roseus Mello-Leitfio, 1923 is described for first time.
A new species of the genus Ephebopus Simon, 1892, E. uatuman, is described from the Amazonean Region of Brazil. Concerning E. violaceus Mello Leitao, 1930, type misplaced or lost despite registered in the Arachnological Collection of the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we conclude, after the short description of the author, that this species exhibit characteristics of the genus Avicularia, since the first ocular row is very procurve. The total length of only 23mm, the design on the dorsal side of the abdomen and the division of the posterior tarsal scopulae suggests that the specimen is a juvenile. Therfore two are the Brazilian species of the genus Ephebopus: E. murinus and E. uatuman.