A new species of the genus Plesiophrictus (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae) from western Ghats, India

Manju Siliwal, Sanjay Molur, Robert John Raven ,2007

The genus Plesiophrictus belongs to the subfamily Ischnocolinae of the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and is reported from China, India, Micronesia and Sri Lanka (Platnick, 2007). Amongst the Indian genera of the family Theraphosidae, Plesiophrictus is a relatively species-rich genus (Siliwal et al., 2005; Siliwal & Molur, 2007). Pocock (1899) established the genus Plesiophrictus with description of three species, P. millardi and P. collinus from India and P. tenuipes from Sri Lanka, assigning P. millardi as the type species. Later, a number of new species were described from India under this genus (Pocock, 1900; Gravely, 1915, 1935; Tikader, 1977). After the establishment of the genus Plesiophrictus, the two Indian species, Ischnocolus linteatus Simon, 1891 and Stichoplastus fabrei Simon, 1892 were transferred to this genus by Pocock (1900) and Simon (1903), respectively. This genus was considered endemic to South Asia until the Micronesian species Ischnocolella senffti Strand, 1907 was transferred to this genus by Roewer (1963). Recently, Yin & Tan (2000) described a new species, P. guangxiensis from China. Till date, 16 species have been reported under this genus from the world, of which 13 are endemic to India, one endemic each to China and Sri Lanka and one endemic to the islands of Micronesia (a conglomerate of 9 countries) (Platnick, 2007). Most of the species described from India are known only from the type localities; information on range and geographical variations are limited. More than fifty percent of the species were described a century ago based on very few morphological characters, missing details used in present day taxonomy like morphometry of legs, description of genital structure especially of female, illustrations, sternum, male palp and female spermatheca (see Simon, 1891, 1892; Pocock, 1899, 1900; Strand, 1907; Gravely, 1915, 1935). The more recent descriptions of P. meghalayaensis and P. mahabaleshwari by Tikader (1977) are also incomplete as they lack morphometry of legs, comparison with other species and diagnosis for the species. This paper is an effort to describe a new species based on a female specimen after comparing the available prominent characters with other known species. The objective of this paper is not only to describe a new species, but also provide South Asian arachnologists with a standard description pattern on theraphosids or any mygalomorph spider along with pictures (see Images in the web supplement) in addition to figures as a useful tool for comparative studies. None of the past descriptions of Plesiophrictus spp. includes notes on natural history or ecology, which we have added as noted during our study.

A revision of the Neotropical spider genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2007

The genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 is revised. Pseudoligoxystre Vol 2001 is synonymized with Oligoxystre and its typespecies, P. bolivianum Vol 2001, is considered valid. The type-specimen of Oligoxystre auratum Vellard 1924, type-species by original designation, is considered lost. No additional material matching the original description was found and therefore the species is diagnosed from the original description. Four new species, all from Brazil, are also described: O. caatinga, O. dominguense, O. tucuruiense, and O. rufoniger. Data on natural history of O. bolivianum from field and captivity observations are presented. The genus Cenobiopelma Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1934 ) is based upon Cenobiopelma mimeticum Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1934 for which no type was ever designated and hence both are considered nomina nuda.

Cyriocosmus perezmilesi sp. n. from Bolivia (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2007

Cyriocosmus perezmilesi sp. n. from Bolivia, Beni province, is described, diag- nosed and keyed inside the inner group of Cyriocosmus Simon 1903 which is represented by species with reduced paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb structures. The new species can be distinguished from all other cogeners, ex- cept C. blenginii Pérez-Miles 1998, by uniformly coloured carapace and lateral four-striped pattern on abdomen. C. perezmilesi sp. n. differs from C. blenginii by presence of the reduced paraembolic apophysis and bicolour femora (reddish brown, distally black).

Description of Guyruita gen. nov. and two new species (Ischnocolinae, Theraphosidae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Sylvia M. Lucas, Rafael Prezzi Indicatti, Flávio Uemori Yamamoto ,2007

The genus Guyruita gen. nov. and two new species from Brazil are described. Holothele waikoshiemi (Bertani & Araújo, 2005) from Venezuela is transferred here to the new genus. Guyruita gen. nov. differs from the remaining Ischnocolinae by the following features: labium densely occupied by a lot of cuspules (more than 100), intercheliceral intumescence absent, posterior sternal sigilla remote from margin, tarsal claws without teeth, tarsal scopula I-II undivided (tarsus II with a line of sparse setae, which does not divide the scopula), III-IV divided.

Eine neue Psalmopoeus-Art aus Venezuela, Psalmopoeus langenbucheri sp. n. (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae)

Gunter Schmidt, Michael Bullmer, Martin Thierer-Lutz ,2006

Psalmopoeus langenbucheri sp. n. differs from most Psalmopoeus spew des yet known in its small size. The body length of the female (holotype) is 37,0 mm and of the male 21 ,5 mm (without chelicera and spinnerets). Its pal pal bulb with the long and thin embolus is similar to that of some species of Tapinauchenius , its length is 3,5 mm. In the female the length of the receptacula seminis is 1,6 mm, the spermathecae belong to the P. reduncus- type. There are some differences between the spermathecae of subadult and adult females.

Megaphobema teceae n. sp. (Araneae, Theraphosidae), a new theraphosine spider from Brazilian Amazonia

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Laura Tavares Miglio, Alexandre Bonaldo ,2006

A new species from Juruti River Plateau, Juruti, Pará, Brazil that fits the generic characters of Megaphobema is described. Megaphobema teceae n. sp. differs from the other four species known in this genus mainly by the presence of a conspicuous post-ocular process. This is the first record of the genus to both oriental Amazon and Brazil.

Avicularia hirschii sp. n. (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae), eine neue Vogelspinnenart aus Ekuador

Michael Bullmer, Martin Thierer-Lutz, Gunter Schmidt ,2006

Avicularia hirschii is one of the smaller species of the genus. The male has instead of a tibia spur a lot of thick black spines similar to those of Avicularia versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837) from Martinique and Guadeloupe. Tufts of red hairs on the tarsi and the opisthosoma arranged in two rows framing the black middle section are typical. The length of the urticating hairs of type II is 0,10 - 0,17 mm. The embolus is long and tapered. The spermathecae are similar to those of A. azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996 from Peru. Juvenile spiders are almost white coloured with black stripe on the opisthosoma. There is no Christmas tree pattern as in other Avicularia species.

Neue Erkenntnisse zur Vogelspinnen -- Unterfamilie Ornithoctoninae, mit Beschreibung von Ornithoctonus aureotibialis sp. n. und Haplopelma longipes sp. n. (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Volker von Wirth, Boris F Striffler ,2005

New insights to the subfamily Ornithoctoninae are presented and its genera are redefined. Moreover two new species are described, which have been subject of studies by the senior author for many years.Ornithoctonus aureotibialis sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Ornithoctonus species by an orange – golden fringe of hairs on retrolateral side of patella and tibia of leg I and II. The other new species, Haplopelma longipes sp. n., is easily recognised by its very long leg IV (RF < 90) in females.Ornithoctonus aureotibialis sp. n., is long time known in pet trade as Haplopelma sp. “aureopilosum”. It was recently described by SCHMIDT & SAMM 2005 as “Haplopelma chrysothrix”, a name, which is not available according to the ICZN, as no type depository was included in the description. The same happened with “Haplopelma vonwirthi” SCHMIDT 2005, which is unavailable as well, but is most probably a synonym of Haplopelma minax(THORELL 1897).

On a new genus and species of theraphosid spider from Serpent Island, Mauritius (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Eumenophorinae)

Richard C Gallon ,2005

A new genus and species of theraphosid, Mascaraneus remoras, is described from Serpent Island, Mauritius. The new species, although eumenophorine. lacks stridulatory setae, but plesiomorphically retains divided metatarsal scopulae on leg IV and distal clavate trichobothria on the tarsi. It is the first theraphosid spider recorded from the Mascarene Islands. Its biogeography and taxonomy are discussed.

Description d'une nouvelle espèce d'Holothele (Arachnida, Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) de Guadeloupe (Antilles françaises) et commentaires sur la répartition du genre

Patrick Maréchal ,2005

Description of a new species of Holothele (Arachnida, Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) from Guadeloupe (FWI) and comments on the distribution of the genus.

A new species of the family Theraphosidae, Holothele sulfurensis n. sp., is described from the Soufrière area in Guadeloupe (FWI). The distinctive taxonomic characters are: scopulate metatarsi IV, divided scopula on tarsi I, straight fovea, and simple, long and digitiform spermathecae. Its biology, compared with those of the other species of the recently revised genus, allows some remarks on the distribution of the genus Holothele Karsch, 1879 in the West Indies.

Neue Erkennstisse zur Vogelspinnen – Unterfamilie Ornithoctoninae, mit Beschreibung von Ornithoctonus aureotibialis sp. n. und Haplopelma longipes sp. n. (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Volker von Wirth, Boris F Striffler ,2005

New insights to the subfamily Ornithoctoninae are presented and its genera are redefined. Moreover two new species are described, which have been subject of studies by the senior author for many years. Ornithoctonus aureotibialis Ornithoctonus aureotibialis sp. n. can be distinguished from all other sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Ornithoctonus Ornithoctonus species by an orange – golden species by an orange – golden fringe of hairs on retrolateral side of patella and tibia of leg I and II. The other new species, Haplopelma longipes sp. n., is easily recognised by its very long leg IV (RF < 90) in females. Ornithoctonus aureotibialis Ornithoctonus aureotibialis sp. n., is long time known in pet trade as sp. n., is long time known in pet trade as Haplopelma Haplopelma sp. “aureopilosum”. It was recently sp. “aureopilosum”. It was recently described by SCHMIDT & SAMM 2005 as “Haplopelma chrysothrix”, a name, which is not available according to the ICZN, as no type depository was included in the description. The same happened with “Haplopelma vonwirthi” SCHMIDT 2005, which is unavailable as well, but is most probably a synonym of Haplopelma minax (THORELL 1897).

Haplopelma vonwirthi sp. n., eine neue Art der Haplopelma minax-Gruppe aus Südostasien (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Ornitoctoninae)

Gunter Schmidt ,2005

The female of a new Haplopelma sp. from South-East Asia is described. It belongs to the H. minax group. Its simple fused spermathecae (fig. 1) cannot be distinguished from those of H. minax (THORELL, 1897) and H. Iividum SMITH, 1996. Leg IV is a little longer than leg I. The position of the thorn-like coxal spines on the prolateral face of the palp and their size are quite different from those of the other species of the H. minax-group (fig. 2). The male is known, but could not be studied. The species name H. vonwirthi sp. n. is proposed.

A new species in the spider genus Phormictopus (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) from Cuba

David Ortiz, Rogério Bertani ,2005

A new species, Phormictopus auratus, is described. This species is character- ized by presenting the apex of the retrolateral branch of the tibial spurs fla- ttened, on which the metatarsus I makes contact when flexed; also by posses- sing spermathecae well defined in three parts: the base, neck and fundus, and finally for having the carapace covered by a fine and dense golden pubescence. Natural history data of this species, collected in various regions of central- eastern Cuba, are given. With this, the registered number of Cuban taxa pertai- ning to the genus Phormictopus is increased to four.

Revision of Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903, with notes on the genus Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani, Pedro Ismael da Silva Júnior ,2005

The genus Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 is revised based on most types and additional material from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Tobago Island and Venezuela. Two species are newly described from Brazil: Cyriocosmus nogueira-netoi and Cyriocosmus fernandoi. The species Cyriocosmus fascia-tus (Mello-Leitão, 1930), formerly synonymized with Cyriocosmus elegans, is revalidated. Metrio-pelma nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) and Cyriocosmus butantan Pérez-Miles, 1998 are transferred to Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875, proposing Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) new combination and Hapalopus butantan (Pérez-Miles, 1998) new combination. The female of Hapalopus butantan is described for the first time. All 11 species of Cyriocosmus are diagnosedand keyed. A cladistic analysis with 28 characters and 19 taxa was carried out. Searches using three phylogenetic packages found a single, totally resolved tree with the same topology.

Una nueva especie de tarántula del g¹nero Aphonopelma Pocock 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae) de M¹xico con notas sobre el g¹nero Brachypelma Simon 1891

Arturo Locht, Francisco Medina, Roberto Rojo, Ignacio Vázquez ,2005

A new species of Aphonopelma Valley of Mexico is described. It is morphologically related to Aphopelma crinitum from the shape of the bulb of the male and female spermathecae. Two changes are also proposed Brachypelma gender as a result of the review of several specimens Aphonopelma albiceps (Pocock 1903) is Brachypelma Simon relocated in 1891 and stands as Brachypelma ruhnaui junior synonym of Brachypelma albiceps Pocock 1903.

Aenigmarachne sinapophysis gen. et sp. n., eine neue Vogelspinnenart aus Costa Rica (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Gunter Schmidt ,2005

The male of Aenigmarachne sinapophysis from Costa Rica is described. It is a small theraphosinae species belonging to the group where type VI urticating hairs are present. These spiders are distributed in Mexico and Central America. A. sinapophysis is the only species where the urticating hairs of that type are distally bent. In A. sinapophysis tibial spurs are absent. This species has a very long and bent embolus. The female is unknown. Therefore the relationship to other Central American genera of Theraphosinae has to remain vague for the time being.

Description of Catumiri n. gen. and three new species (Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2004

The new Ischnocolinae genus Catumiri is described. The species Cenobiopelma argentinense (Mello-Leitão, 1934), considered a junior synonym of Oligoxystre Vellard, 1924, is transferred to the present genus. Three new species are also described: C. chicaoi n. sp., from south of Bahia, Una; C. petropolium n. sp., from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro (type species); and C. uruguayense n. sp., from Lavalleja, Uruguay. Diagnosis, zoogeographical distribution and an identification key are provided for all species.