Two new names of the specific epithets cubanum and maculatum in Trichopelma cubanum (Banks, 1909) and Trichopelma maculatum (Franganillo, 1930) (Araneae: Barychelidae)

Hüseyin Özdikmen, Hakan Demir ,2012

According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), the authors request the rejection of the specific epithets of Trichopelma cubanum (Banks, 1909) and Trichopelma maculatum (Franganillo, 1930) [Family Barychelidae] and propose Trichopelma banksia comb. nov. and Trichopelma eucubanum comb. nov. instead of them.

Two new species of Tmesiphantes Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) from the state of Minas Gerias, Brazil

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Pedro Ismael da Silva Júnior ,2012

Two new species of the genus Tmesiphantes from Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais are described. They comprise the first records of the genus outside the Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, the examination of all type material of the genera Tmesiphantes and Melloleitaoina, which have been suggested as sister groups, showed that the thickness of femur III, used to distinguish between them, shows a continuous variation, and the taxonomic usage of this character is discussed.

A new tarantula genus, Psednocnemis, from west Malaysia (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with cladistic analysis and biogeography of Selenocosmiinae Simon 1889

Rick C. West, Steven C. Nunn, Stephen Hogg ,2012

The selenocosmiine genus Psednocnemis gen. nov. is described from the Sundaland region of South-east Asia. The type species Psednocnemis davidgohi sp. nov., which the male was incorrectly identified as Coremiocnemis hoggi West & Nunn 2010, is herein described. Cladistic analyses of 46 morphological characters and 39 exemplar taxa from 12 genera were done. The genera analysed were: Reichlingia Rudloff 2001; ingroup: Chilobrachys Karsch 1891; Coremiocnemis Simon 1892; Haplocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1996; Lyrognathus Pocock 1895; Orphnaecus Simon 1892; Phlogiellus Pocock 1897; Poecilotheria Simon 1885; Psednocnemis gen. nov.; Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999; Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 (in part: Sundaland fauna only); Yamia Kishida 1920. The results presented Psednocnemis gen. nov. as monophyletic based on presence of a distal embolic spiral curl in males and presence of a distodorsal spiniform brush on the retrolateral surfaces of coxa IV, as well as the reduction in density of hair type 4, located along the proximoventral abdomen of both sexes. Two new tribes are described: Chilobrachini trib. nov. and Phlogiellini trib. nov., based upon basal nodes with strongest branch support that best reflected natural groups. Selenocosmiini Simon 1889 and Poecilotheriini Simon 1889 are revised and redescribed. Yamia Kishida 1920 is placed into junior synonymy of Phlogiellus (syn. nov.); Chilocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1992 and Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999 are placed into junior synonymy of Orphnaecus (syn. nov.); Selenocosmia xinping Zhu & Zhang 2008 is transferred to Phlogiellus, makng the new combination Phlogiellus xinping (Zhu & Zhang 2008) comb. nov.; Selenocosmia dichromata (Schmidt & von Wirth 1992) is transferred to Orphnaecus, making the new combination Orphnaecus dichromata (Schmit & von Wirth 1992) comb. nov.; Coremiocnemis brachyramosa West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis gnathospina West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis jeremyhuffi West & Nunn 2010 and Selenocosmia imbellis (Simon 1891) are transferred to Psednocnemis gen. et comb. nov. Poecilotherinae (Schmidt 1995) is no longer considered a valid subfamily and is replaced into Selenocosmiinae as the tribe Poecilotheriini. Chilocosmia barensteinerae Schmidt et al. 2010 is considered a Selenocosmiinae species incertae sedis. Ischnocolella senffti Strand 1907 is considered a nomen dubium. All other genera examined were retrieved as monophyletic in the first cladistic analyses exclusive to Selenocosmiinae genera (Australo-Papuan selenocosmiines are outside the scope of this work and are not considered). Biogeography of all Selenocosmiinae is discussed; the group is a potential model North Gondwanan taxon. A key to Psednocnemis species is provided.

A new genus of the family Theraphosidae (Araneae: Mygalomorphae) with description of three new species from the western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Manju Siliwal, Neha Gupta, Robert John Raven ,2012

The subfamily Ischnocolinae of the family Theraphosidae is a generic complex and Raven (1985) considered all genera (including the only Indian genus Plesiophrictus Pocock, 1899) as incertae sedis. These genera require re-examination of the type specimens along with examination of new collections from the type locality to revalidate their taxonomic position under Ischnocolinae. Recently, Guadanucci (2011) revalidated the genus Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and removed it from the junior synonym of Plesiophrictus; he also provided distinct generic characters for Heterophrictus and Plesiophrictus, which are helpful in the revision of Indian Plesiophrictus. Though the taxonomic position of Heterophrictus is still confusing in the absence of cladistic analysis (R. Raven pers. comm. 7 February 2012), in this paper, we consider Heterophrictus a valid genus until further cladistic analysis (based on more specimens) is published.

Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1859, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)

Rogério Bertani ,2012

Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., T. costae sp. n., T. curumim sp. n., T. paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., I. marcoi sp. n., I. oliveirai sp. n. and I. vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.

New species of Eupalaestrus from Argentina (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

Nelson Ferretti, Jorge Barneche ,2012

A new species of Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Males and females of Eupalaestrus larae sp. nov. differ from those all other species of the genus by the color with distinct two parallel longitudinal stripes on the femora, patellae, tibiae and one longitudinal stripe reaching half of metatarsi; the presence of a thickened femur and tibia IV; a straight embolus of the male palpal bulb and retrolateral keel pronounced. Specimens were captured in Chaco province, inhabiting unflooded flat grasslands open areas inside forest in transitional Chaco eco-region.

Catanduba, a new Theraphosinae spider genus from Central Brazil (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Flávio Uemori Yamamoto, Sylvia M. Lucas, Antonio Domingos Brescovit ,2012

A new genus, Catanduba, is proposed and supported on the cladistic analysis with the following synapomorphies: embolus tapering abruptly from half of the length, embolus tooth associated with PIK and a triangular basal nodule on male metatarsus I. Homoeomma simoni and Plesiopelma flavohirtum are transferred to Catanduba and five new species are described: C. tuskae, C. araguaia, C. piauiensis, C. canabrava and C. peruacu. The species occur mainly in central Brazil, in Cerrado areas, with some species also occurring in Atlantic forest (C. tuskae sp. n. ) and Caatinga (C. piauiensis sp. n. and C. peruacu sp. n.).

On the mygalomorphs (Araneae: Mygalomorphae) in the collection of Entomology Laboratory, University of Calcutta

Souvik Sen, Sumana Saha, Dinendra Raychaudhuri ,2012

Six mygalomorphs of the family Idiopidae and Theraphosidae are dealt with. The taxa, Heligmomerus Simon, H. barkudensis (Gravely, 1921), H. garoensis (Tikader, 1977) comb. nov. and Chilobrachys khasiensis (Tikader, 1977) are reported for the first time from the state of West Bengal and Chilobrachys stridulans (Wood Mason, 1877) from Arunachal Pradesh. All these rare and poorly known mygalomorphs are diagnosed and illustrated in the interest of Indian Arachnology.

Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2011

The genus Oligoxystre was originally established in 1924 for O. auratum Vellard 1924 from southern state of Goia´s, Central Brazil. Today, the genus includes seven species: O. auratum, O. caatinga Guadanucci 2007, O. bolivianum (Vol 2001), O. tucuruiense Guadanucci 2007, O. rufoniger Guadanucci 2007, O. dominguense Guadanucci 2007, and O. diamantinensis Bertani et al. 2009. Oligoxystre mineirum new species, from the Atlantic forest domain is described here. The cladistic analysis resulted in a single tree: (O.caatinga (O.mineirum ((O.tucuruiense+O.rufoniger) (O.diamantinensis (O.bolivianum +O.dominguense))))). According to the area cladogram obtained, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the origin of the Cerrado fauna is monophyletic; the occurrence of two sympatric species in Caatinga is due to different events; and the diversity of Oligoxystre in Serra do Espinhac¸o (O. rufoniger, O. diamantinensis and O. mineirum) is probably the result of the contact of the typical fauna of each bioma (Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Forest).

Revalidation of Pterinopelma Pocock 1901 with description of a new species and the female of Pterinopelma vitiosum (Keyserling 1891) (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Rogério Bertani, Roberto Hiroaki Nagahama, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima ,2011

We revalidate the theraphosid genus Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, describe the female of P. vitiosum for first time and Pterinopelma sazimai sp. nov. from Brazil. These two species were included in a matrix with 35 characters and 32 taxa and were analyzed both with all characters having same weight and with implied weights. Searches considering all characters non-additive or some additive were also carried out. The preferred tree, obtained with implied weights, concavity 6 and all characters non-additive shows that Pterinopelma is a monophyletic genus sister to the clade Lasiodora (Vitalius + Nhandu). The presence of denticles on the prolateral inferior male palpal bulb keel is a synapomorphy of the genus.

Schismatothele benedettii, a new species of tarantula from amazonic Brazil (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Alejandra Panzera, Cintya Perdomo, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2011

We describe and figure a new species of the genus Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 from Brazil, Amazonas state,to the north of Manaus. This species comprises the firstmale known for the genus and the first report of the genus Schismatothele for Brazil. The new species differs from theonly known species, Schismatothele lineata Karsch, 1879 inthe morphology of the spermathecae in which the dorsalreceptacles have internal tubular digitiform lobules.

On the Avicularia (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae) species from Uruguay

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Fernando Pérez-Miles, Rogério Bertani ,2011

The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 1878), Avicularia parva (Keyserling 1878) and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost.

Thrixopelma lagunas sp. n., eine bisher unbekannte Vogelspinnenart aus Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Gunter Schmidt, Jan-Peter Rudloff ,2010

Thrixopelma lagunas sp. n. is the fourth species of the genus distributed in Peru. It is characterized by a prolonged embolus in the male (fig.4-5) and very simple receptacula seminis in the female (fig. 9). The scopula of metatarsus III extends over a third of the segment only. In T. pruriens Schmidt, 1998 it covers 2/3, in T. cyaneolum Schmidt, Friebolin & Friebolin, 2005 and in T. ockerti Schmidt, 1994, 1/2 of the metatarsus III. It differs by its dark brown colour from T. cyaneolum which shows a cyan brightness of carapace and extremities and from T. ockerti by its spermathecae which are pointed- caplike. The new species is closely related to T. pruriens also distri-buted in Peru.

Ein Weibchen von Chilocosmia barensteinerae sp. n. aus Kalimantan (Borneo) (Theraphosidae: Selenocosmiinae)

Gunter Schmidt, Siegfried Hettegger, Jesko Matthes ,2010

Chilocosmia barenst9ineraels a new species of the genus and the first species of this genus from Kalimantan. hi adult female could be c:cllected In the South of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. It moulted on 20" August 2009. The male of this species is unknown. The exuvia has been studied by SCHMIDT who dissected the stridulation bristles and the sperrnathecae. The new species differs from all other spa... des of the genus by two additional rows of paddle and peglike strXluialing setae on the maxillae, one medium-sized and one very small. The differ· ences to C. p6erbooml SCHMIDT. 1999 from the island of Negros (Philippines) are besides two additional rows of paddle and peglike setae on maxillae, scopula of metatarsus IV the base of the segment not reaching, Tibia IV not thickened, distance ALE-PLE considerably larger, unpaired third claw absent, three pairs of sternal slgillae. hair red brown . Colour after moulting deep black. The biotope Is the tropical rain forest. whictt is very humid during the monsoon time. Ch//ocosmia SCHMIDT & VON WIRTH, 1992, in 2000 synonymized with Sel9nocosmia by RAVEN is a genus of its own and quite different from Selenocosmia AUSSERER,1871 . -Selenocosmia bom908nsis- nomen nudum (non vidimus) is probably an Omithoctoninae sp.

A taxonomic revision of the tarantula spider genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with notes on the Selenocosmiinae

Rick C. West, Steven C. Nunn ,2010

The tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 is revised with three new species described: L. achilles sp. nov. from Gunung Nibung, Borneo; L. fuscus sp. nov. from Simpang Kubur, Borneo and L. lessunda sp. nov. from Lombok Island, Indonesia. The male of L. robustus Smith 1988 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed. L. crotalus Pocock 1895 is considered a senior synonym of L. pugnax Pocock 1900. Several new characters are discussed, with Lyrognathus keyed to species. The diagnosis of the Selenocosmiinae is amended. Zoogeographic distribution, natural history and subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 are discussed. Lyrognathus saltator is redescribed. Selenocosmia lyra Strand 1913 is considered a nomen dubium.

Cyriocosmus venezuelensis sp. n. from Venezuela (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2010

Cyriocosmus venezuelensis sp. nov. from Venezuela, State of Lara and Carabobo, is described, diagnosed and keyed. The new species can be distinguished from all other congeners by its uniformly coloured carapace, dark ventral band on the abdomen and by the paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb being half the length of the embolus. Cyriocosmus rogerioi Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009 is placed in the synonymy of Cyriocosmus pribiki Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009, from which it does not differ in any characters of specific significance.

A taxonomic revision of the tarantula spider genus Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with further notes on the Selenocosmiinae

Rick C. West, Steven C. Nunn ,2010

The selenocosmiine genus Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 is revised for the first time with six new species included. Five new species are from West Malaysia: C. brachyramosa sp. nov. from Gunung Ledang, Johor; C. gnathospina sp. nov. and C. hoggi sp. nov. from Fraser’s Hill, Selangor; C. jeremyhuffi sp. nov. from Tapah, Perak, Fraser’s Hill, Selangor to Pahang and C. obscura sp. nov. from Taiping, Perak to Cameron Highlands, Pahang. C. kotacana sp. nov. is described from Aceh Teneggara, Sumatra, being the first record of this genus outside Malaysia or Australia. A lectotype and paralectotype are designated for C. cunicularia (Simon 1892). All but two of Abraham’s non-type C. valida Pocock 1895 (Abraham 1924) specimens held in both the NHM and RMBR are newly transferred to C. cunicularia. Abraham’s two remaining specimens are removed from Coremiocnemis. C. valida is redescribed, its former dubious locality is resolved. Zoogeographic considerations of all species are discussed and resolved. Ontogenetic variation within Coremiocnemis is discussed. Several new characters are introduced. Subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 are discussed. A key to species is provided.

Descripción de Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) y primer registro del género para Venezuela.

Carlos Rodríguez-Manzanilla, Rogério Bertani ,2010

Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from State Bolivar, Venezuela. The new species resembles Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 and A. maga Simon, 1892 but can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal organ and tibia I apophysis. The genus is recorded for the first time for Venezuela.