Reconciling morphological and molecular systematics in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae): revision of the Mexican endemic genus Bonnetina
David Ortiz, Oscar F. Francke ,2017Systematics has been formally implemented for about 250 years. In the last decades it has suffered great intellectual change, with the embrace of phylogenetic theory and the availability of molecular information. Here we conduct a systematic revision of Bonnetina, a group of tarantulas endemic to Mexico. Species delimitation is mainly conducted from the integration of morphological and molecular information. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) marker is used as molecular barcode, and two formal molecular delimitation methods are employed: Hard-Gap barcoding and Poisson Tree Process. In a few cases, we used geographic distribution modelling for predicting the potential distribution of species. We also make a deeper than usual integration of the molecular information in the taxonomy of the group, by providing combined morphological and molecular diagnoses of the species. From our data, we provide a new diagnosis of Bonnetina and recognize the existence of 17 solidly supported species in the genus, 10 of which are newly described. We provide a COI reference alignment to ease future molecular identifications of Bonnetina species. Our work highlights the importance of using several sources of evidence to the species delimitation problem, because any single view is prone to give biased results.
Systematic revision of Brachypelma red-kneed tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), and the use of DNA barcodes to assist in the identification and conservation of CITES-listed species
Taxonomic revision of the genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1996 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with the description of additional keels on the embolus
Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera
Re-description of Trichopelma cubanum (Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae) and comments about the familial placement of Trichopelma
Duniesky Ríos Tamayo ,2017A detailed re-description of the type specimen of Trichopelma cubanum (Simon, 1903) is presented. Comments and observations are made regarding morphological characters, such as the absence of teeth on the paired claws and the presence of small teeth on the anterior edge of the booklung opening. These characters, found in other species of Trichopelma Simon, 1888 (represented in the Neotropical region by 16 species), suggest that the recent transfer of the genus to Theraphosidae may be unjustified, and that Trichopelma may indeed be more closely related to the Barychelidae.
Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga, from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)
A new genus of Theraphosid spider from Mexico, with a particular palpal bulb structure (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)
Description of the male of Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013, a remarkable species from the Dominican Republic (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae)
Radan Kaderka ,2016A male of Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013 from Pedernales province, Dominican Republic in the Greater Antillean island of Hispaniola is, herein, described and figured. The males of Avicularia rickwesti differ from all other congeners by the presence of well-developed keels on the embolus of the palpal bulb. The species is rediagnosed.
Una nueva especie de Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) sin órgano estridulador, del sur de Perú
Revised Taxonomic Placement of the Species in the Central American Genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, with Comments on Species in Related Genera (Araneae: Theraphosidae)
Ray Gabriel ,2016The genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 are redefined. The genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 is removed from synonymy with Stichoplastus Simon, 1903, and the genus Eurypelmella Strand, 1907b is removed from synonymy with Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 gen. rest. The holotype specimens of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982, Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878, Schizopelma bicarinatum F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, and conspecifics of Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 are redescribed. Hapalopus ruficeps Simon, 1891 is removed from synonymy with Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 and, along with Cyclosternum fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 and Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, are transferred to the genus Davus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) comb. nov. Davus santos sp. nov. is described. Davus ruficeps is regarded as senior synonym of Metriopelma zebratum syn. nov., Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982 is regarded as junior synonym of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 syn. nov. Davus mozinna Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 is regarded as junior synonym of D. pentaloris syn. nov. The specimen of Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878 from the Natural History Museum, London, is formally nominated as topotype because the holotype is missing (see Discussion). Metriopelma familiare (Simon, 1889) and Metriopelma ledezmae Vol, 2000 are tentatively transferred to the genus Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871 comb. nov., while Metriopelma coloratus Valerio, 1982 and Metriopelma variegatus (Caporiacco, 1955) are transferred to the genus Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 combs. nov. Metriopelma velox Pocock, 1903, Lasiodora trinitatis (Pocock, 1903), and L. trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) are transferred to the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907a combs. nov. Metriopelma spinulosum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1899 is transferred back to the restored genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 comb. rest. along with Cyclosternum macropus Ausserer, 1875, Schizopelma sorkini Smith, 1995, and Lasiodora gutzkei Reichling, 1997, transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 combs. nov. Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) is redescribed. Lasiodora tetricus (Simon 1889) is transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 to the restored genus Miaschistopus Pocock, 1897 comb. rest. The genera Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, with its single species Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925, and Barropelma Chamberlin (1940), with its single species Barropelma parvior Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, are removed from the synonymy of Lasiodora and restored gen. rest.
Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia
A new species of Pterinopelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the highlands of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil and description of the male of P. sazimai
Rogério Bertani, Fernando Leal ,2016We describe a new species of tarantula from the highlands of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males of the new species can be distinguished from congeners by having palpal bulb keels weakly developed, and metatarsus I strongly curved, touching apex of retrolateral spur when folded. Females can be distinguished by the color pattern, carapace and legs black with conspicuous white rings on distal femora, patellae, tibiae, and metatarsi. The male of Pterinopelma felipeleitei sp. nov. was previously misidentified and described under the name Pterinopelma sazimai Bertani, Nagahama & Fukushima, 2011. The true male of P. sazimai is herein described from a specimen collected near the type locality. Similar to the conspecific female, this male has characteristic blue iridescent setae covering the carapace, chelicerae, legs, and palps. The new species is sympatric with P. sazimai . Both species inhabit a habitat locally known as 'campos rupestres'.
A Revision of the Selenocosmiine Tarantula Genus Phlogiellus Pocock 1897 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with Description of 4 New Species
Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States
An integrative approach for species delimitation in the spider genus Grammostola (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae)
Radan Kaderka ,2015Bistriopelma gen. nov. from the Andean region in Peru is here described, diagnosed and illustrated, together with two new species Bistriopelma lamasi sp. nov. as a type species and Bistriopelma matuskai sp. nov. This new genus differs from all other theraphosid genera, except the genus Phrixotrichus Simon 1889 (sensu Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014) and the troglobite species Tmesiphantes hypogeus Bertani, Bichuette & Pedroso 2013, in the presence of two abdominal dorsolateral patches of the type III urticating setae. Bistriopelma gen nov. can be distiguished from Phrixotrichus by the different shape of spermathecae in females, consisting of two separate subparallel seminal receptacles in Bistriopelma gen. nov. but strongly divergent in Phrixotrichus and by the different morphology of male palpal bulb (embolus projecting retrolaterally from tegulum in Bistriopelma gen. nov. against posteriorly in Phrixotrichus); furthermore by the presence of basal spine on prolateral tibial apophysis, the absence of the type IV urticating setae and paired tarsal claws denticulate. Bistriopelma gen. nov. is separated from Tmesiphantes hypogeus by the position of the urticating seta patches (middle of abdomen in Bistriopelma gen. nov. and posterior half in Tmesiphantes hypogeus), the different shape of spermathecae (long separate seminal receptacles with subapical constriction in Bistriopelma gen. nov. and short, subtriangular and widely separated in Tmesiphantes hypogeus) and also in the extension of metatarsal scopulae. Additional comments and a distribution map of all species of this genus are provided.
A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from southwestern Argentina and new distributional data for P. vulpinus
Nelson Ferretti ,2015A new species of Phrixotrichus Simon, 1889, P. pucara sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a male from Pucará river, Neuquén province, Argentina. Male can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a long strong spine on inner face of prolateral branch of tibial apophysis; also, it differs from P. scrofa (Molina, 1788) and P. vulpinus (Karsch, 1880) by a serrated prolateral keel of the male palpal bulb. Male resembles P. jara Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014 but can be distinguished by the uniform color on dorsal cephalothorax and by the palpal organ morphology being wider on the bulb base and embolus shorter and thicker, with the tip of embolus not so directed retrolaterally and prolateral keel bearing a serrated edge with three teeth. Additionally, P. vulpinus is reported for the first time for Argentina along with new distributional data.
Revalidation of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão and notes on Hapalotremus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)
Hapalotremus exilis (Mello-Leitão, 1923) and Hapalotremus muticus (Mello-Leitão, 1923), previously considered as nomina dubia are here revalidated through the examination of the holotypes. Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 is revalidated and their type species, Dolichothele exilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 is restored. Goniodontium Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Oligoxystre Vellard, 1924 are considered junior synonyms of Dolichothele. Hapalotremus muticus and Oligoxystre caatinga Guadanucci, 2007 are considered junior synonyms of D. exilis. All species of Oligoxystre are transferred to Dolichothele. Cyclothoracoides Strand, 1929, currently a junior synonym of Hapalotremus Simon, 1903, is here considered a junior synonym of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01650521.2015.1103553