Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani ,2017

The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former Avicularia species: Caribena gen. n., composed of Caribena laeta (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. and Caribena versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837), comb. n.; Antillena gen. n., with a single species, Antillena rickwesti (Bertani & Huff, 2013), comb. n., both from the Caribbean; and Ybyrapora gen. n., composed of Ybyrapora sooretama (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n., Ybyrapora gamba (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n. and Ybyrapora diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. from Brazilian rainforest. The subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 is elevated to species status, resulting in the combination Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.. The following new synonymies are established: Avicularia velutina Simon 1889, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930, and Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 are junior synonyms of A. avicularia; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 is a junior synonym of A. variegata stat. n., and Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994 is a junior synonym of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Species transferred to other genera: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849) is transferred to Euathlus Ausserer, 1875, making the new combination Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849), comb. n.; Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906 is transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906), comb. n.; Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) is transferred to Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916), comb. n.; Avicularia leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) and Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) are transferred to Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, making the new combinations Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841), comb. n. and Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n.; the two last species are considered nomina dubia. The following species are considered nomina dubia: Avicularia hirsutissima (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891 nomen dubium; Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) nomen dubium; Araneus hirtipes (Fabricius, 1787) nomen dubium; Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia walckenaerii (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia testacea (C. L. Koch, 1841) nomen dubium; Avicularia detrita (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus doleschalli Ausserer, 1871 nomen dubium; Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Avicularia rapax (Ausserer, 1875) nomen dubium; Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 nomen dubium; Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia huriana Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia braunshauseni Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia geroldi Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia soratae Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; and Avicularia surinamensis Strand, 1907 nomen dubium. Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778) is considered nomen nudum. Keys are provided for identification of all aviculariine genera, as well as to Avicularia, Caribena gen. n., Ybyrapora gen. n. and Antillena gen. n. species. Maps with records and information on species habitat are also presented. Lectotypes are newly designed for A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis, C. laeta comb. n., E. affinis comb. n. and a neotype is established for C. versicolor comb. n.

Litter and ground dwelling spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) of reserve forests of Dooars, West Bengal

Dhruba Chandra Dhali, Sumana Saha, Dinendra Raychaudhuri ,2017

Litter, one of the forest habitats includes the layer of dead plant materials present on soil surface, comprising the surface litter (L-layer), the partially decomposing layer beneath it (F-layer) and the humus layer (H-layer). It plays a major role in the transfer of energy and nutrients in the forest ecosystem; litter fall data is often used to predict the productivity of ecosystem. The natural forest litter, surface and associated ground with its floral diversity and specialized micro niches support a variety of macro and micro arthropods including spiders through variations in moisture, cover materials, litter depth and structure. A strong correlation between species diversity of ground dwelling spiders and litter habitat is thought to exist because habitat affects spiders through prey availability, temperature fluctuation, moisture content and harborage. Ecological importance of spiders is undeniable as they are abundant predators of other forest litter arthropods. Globally people are laying emphasis on the studies of litter and ground dwelling spiders while India is yet to jump into. It is believed that the monograph is the first comprehensive study on the forest litter and ground dwelling spiders of the reserve forests of Dooars, West Bengal, India.

Re-description of Trichopelma cubanum (Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae) and comments about the familial placement of Trichopelma

Duniesky Ríos Tamayo ,2017

A detailed re-description of the type specimen of Trichopelma cubanum (Simon, 1903) is presented. Comments and observations are made regarding morphological characters, such as the absence of teeth on the paired claws and the presence of small teeth on the anterior edge of the booklung opening. These characters, found in other species of Trichopelma Simon, 1888 (represented in the Neotropical region by 16 species), suggest that the recent transfer of the genus to Theraphosidae may be unjustified, and that Trichopelma may indeed be more closely related to the Barychelidae.

Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga, from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)

Yeimy Cifuentes, Sebastian Estrada-Gomez, Leidy Johana Vargas-Muñoz, Carlos Perafán ,2016

A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901 is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor) has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male of P. verdolaga sp. nov. is distinguished by the palpal bulb with broad embolus, poorly developed apical keel (A), prolateral inferior keel (PI) and prolateral accessory keel (PAc) present but poorly developed, and retrolateral keel (R) of similar length as A. Females are distinguished by the morphology of spermatheca with a wide base and very short oval seminal receptacles, which are curved toward the center. This is the thirteenth species described in Pamphobeteus and the sixth species reported from Colombia. The species description is complemented by a molecular characterization of a partial CO1 sequence.

A new genus of Theraphosid spider from Mexico, with a particular palpal bulb structure (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Arturo Locht, Radan Kaderka, Francisco Medina, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2016

Magnacarina gen. nov. from Mexico is described. Hapalopus aldanus West, 2000 from Nayarit, is transferred to the new genus with an emended diagnosis creating the new combination Magnacarina aldana comb. nov. Three new species are described: Magnacarina moderata Locht, Mendoza & Medina sp. nov. from Nayarit and Sinaloa; Magnacarina primaverensis Mendoza & Locht sp. nov. and Magnacarina cancer Mendoza & Locht sp. nov., both from Jalisco. Magnacarina gen. nov. is characterized by an unusual bifid palpal bulb, and has a primary projection located in the central area of the palpal bulb and directed retrolaterally; this projection possesses the prolateral superior and retrolateral keels. Next to the primary projection is a secondary projection, which may be short or long, ending in the prolateral inferior and apical keel surrounding the sperm pore. This secondary projection may have prolateral accessory keels and is diagnosed by possessing a nodule of inwardly curled megaspines, located in the basal ventro-retrolateral region of metatarsi I in adult males. Additionally, male tibiae I possess three apophyses. Females of Magnacarina gen. nov. have a single reduced and strongly sclerotized spermatheca, with an apical lobe projecting ventrally, and with a uterus externus that is longer and wider than the spermatheca.

Description of the male of Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013, a remarkable species from the Dominican Republic (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2016

A male of Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013 from Pedernales province, Dominican Republic in the Greater Antillean island of Hispaniola is, herein, described and figured. The males of Avicularia rickwesti differ from all other congeners by the presence of well-developed keels on the embolus of the palpal bulb. The species is rediagnosed.

Una nueva especie de Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) sin órgano estridulador, del sur de Perú

Nelson Ferretti, José A. Ochoa, Juan C. Chaparro ,2016

Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

Revised Taxonomic Placement of the Species in the Central American Genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, with Comments on Species in Related Genera (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2016

The genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 are redefined. The genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 is removed from synonymy with Stichoplastus Simon, 1903, and the genus Eurypelmella Strand, 1907b is removed from synonymy with Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 gen. rest. The holotype specimens of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982, Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878, Schizopelma bicarinatum F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, and conspecifics of Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 are redescribed. Hapalopus ruficeps Simon, 1891 is removed from synonymy with Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 and, along with Cyclosternum fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 and Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, are transferred to the genus Davus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) comb. nov. Davus santos sp. nov. is described. Davus ruficeps is regarded as senior synonym of Metriopelma zebratum syn. nov., Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982 is regarded as junior synonym of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 syn. nov. Davus mozinna Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 is regarded as junior synonym of D. pentaloris syn. nov. The specimen of Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878 from the Natural History Museum, London, is formally nominated as topotype because the holotype is missing (see Discussion). Metriopelma familiare (Simon, 1889) and Metriopelma ledezmae Vol, 2000 are tentatively transferred to the genus Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871 comb. nov., while Metriopelma coloratus Valerio, 1982 and Metriopelma variegatus (Caporiacco, 1955) are transferred to the genus Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 combs. nov. Metriopelma velox Pocock, 1903, Lasiodora trinitatis (Pocock, 1903), and L. trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) are transferred to the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907a combs. nov. Metriopelma spinulosum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1899 is transferred back to the restored genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 comb. rest. along with Cyclosternum macropus Ausserer, 1875, Schizopelma sorkini Smith, 1995, and Lasiodora gutzkei Reichling, 1997, transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 combs. nov. Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) is redescribed. Lasiodora tetricus (Simon 1889) is transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 to the restored genus Miaschistopus Pocock, 1897 comb. rest. The genera Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, with its single species Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925, and Barropelma Chamberlin (1940), with its single species Barropelma parvior Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, are removed from the synonymy of Lasiodora and restored gen. rest.

Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

Carlos Perafán, William Galvis, Miguel Gutiérrez, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2016

A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed.

A new species of Pterinopelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the highlands of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil and description of the male of P. sazimai

Rogério Bertani, Fernando Leal ,2016

We describe a new species of tarantula from the highlands of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males of the new species can be distinguished from congeners by having palpal bulb keels weakly developed, and metatarsus I strongly curved, touching apex of retrolateral spur when folded. Females can be distinguished by the color pattern, carapace and legs black with conspicuous white rings on distal femora, patellae, tibiae, and metatarsi. The male of Pterinopelma felipeleitei sp. nov. was previously misidentified and described under the name Pterinopelma sazimai Bertani, Nagahama & Fukushima, 2011. The true male of P. sazimai is herein described from a specimen collected near the type locality. Similar to the conspecific female, this male has characteristic blue iridescent setae covering the carapace, chelicerae, legs, and palps. The new species is sympatric with P. sazimai . Both species inhabit a habitat locally known as 'campos rupestres'.

A Revision of the Selenocosmiine Tarantula Genus Phlogiellus Pocock 1897 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with Description of 4 New Species

Steven C. Nunn, Rick C. West, Volker von Wirth ,2016

The tarantula genus Phlogiellus (Pocock 1897) is revised. The genus is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine genera for the first time along with a new generic description. The tribe Yamiini (Kishida 1920) is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine tribes. All Phlogiellus species are diagnosed from all congeners; all species are mapped. Complete dichotomous keys for both sexes of all species are included. Where appropriate, intraspecific variation is discussed. Four new species are described: P. bogadeki sp. nov. from Hong Kong, P. johnreylazoi sp. nov. from Palawan Island, Philippines, P. moniqueverdezae sp. nov. from Ranong, Thailand, and P. pelidnus sp. nov. from Sabah, Borneo. The type species P. atriceps (Pocock 1897) holotype male is redescribed and the male P. baeri (Simon 1877) is described in detail for the first time. The validity of P. inermis (Ausserer 1871) is confirmed. Relationships between all known selenocosmiine genera and Phlogiellus from the Philippines are discussed and several character traits are newly diagnosed. The tribe Phlogiellini (West et al. 2012) is a junior synonym of Yamiini (Kishida 1920). Selenocosmia orophila (Thorell 1897) from Myanmar, Selenocosmia insulana (Hirst 1909) from Djampea (= Jampea) Island, and Selenocosmia obscura (Hirst 1909) from Sarawak, Borneo, are transferred to Phlogiellus, altering the specific names to Phlogiellus orophilus (Thorell 1897) comb. nov., Phlogiellus insulanus (Hirst 1909) comb. nov., and Phlogiellus obscurus (Hirst 1909) comb. nov. Phlogiellus subarmatus (Thorell 1891) is transferred to Chilobrachys (Karsch 1891), becoming Chilobrachys subarmatus (Thorell 1891) comb. nov. Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014) is transferred to Orphnaecus (Simon 1892), becoming Orphnaecus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014) comb. nov. Phlogiellus ornatus (Thorell 1897) and Phlogiellus nebulosus (Rainbow 1899) are considered species inquirenda. Phlogiellus baeri (Simon 1877) is no longer considered incertae sedis; Phlogiellus bicolor (Strand 1911) and Phlogiellus insularis (Simon 1877) are considered incertae sedis.

Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States

Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jason E. Bond ,2016

This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group’s taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (A. apacheum, A. minchi, A. rothi, A. schmidti, A. stahnkei = A. chalcodes; A. arnoldi = A. armada; A. behlei, A. vogelae = A. marxi; A. breenei = A. anax; A. chambersi, A. clarum, A. cryptethum, A. sandersoni, A. sullivani = A. eutylenum; A. clarki, A. coloradanum, A. echinum, A. gurleyi, A. harlingenum, A. odelli, A. waconum, A. wichitanum = A. hentzi; A. heterops = A. moderatum; A. jungi, A. punzoi = A. vorhiesi; A. brunnius, A. chamberlini, A. iviei, A. lithodomum, A. smithi, A. zionis = A. iodius; A. phanum, A. reversum = A. steindachneri), 14 new species (A. atomicum sp. n., A. catalina sp. n., A. chiricahua sp. n., A. icenoglei sp. n., A. johnnycashi sp. n., A. madera sp. n., A. mareki sp. n., A. moellendorfi sp. n., A. parvum sp. n., A. peloncillo sp. n., A. prenticei sp. n., A. saguaro sp. n., A. superstitionense sp. n., and A. xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (A. baergi, A. cratium, A. hollyi, A. mordax, A. radinum, A. rusticum, A. texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.

An integrative approach for species delimitation in the spider genus Grammostola (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae)

Laura Montes de Oca, Guillermo D' Elia, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2015

The mygalomorph genus Grammostola (family Theraphosidae) is endemic to South America. The species Grammostola anthracina is one of the largest spiders in Uruguay and reputed to be the longest lived tarantula in the world. This nominal species has two distinct colour morphs comprising black and reddish-brown forms with controversial taxonomic status. Here, we present a phylogenetic study based on molecular characters (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) of haplotypes of G. anthracina and closely related species. Our analysis together with new morphological data and biogeographical information indicates that the two morphs of G. anthracina constitute different species that are not sister to each other. Consequently, a new species, Grammostola quirogai is described, diagnosed and illustrated to encompass the black morph. Phylogenetic relationships and new taxonomic characters for Grammostola species included in this study are discussed.

Bistriopelma, a new genus with two new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2015

Bistriopelma gen. nov. from the Andean region in Peru is here described, diagnosed and illustrated, together with two new species Bistriopelma lamasi sp. nov. as a type species and Bistriopelma matuskai sp. nov. This new genus differs from all other theraphosid genera, except the genus Phrixotrichus Simon 1889 (sensu Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014) and the troglobite species Tmesiphantes hypogeus Bertani, Bichuette & Pedroso 2013, in the presence of two abdominal dorsolateral patches of the type III urticating setae. Bistriopelma gen nov. can be distiguished from Phrixotrichus by the different shape of spermathecae in females, consisting of two separate subparallel seminal receptacles in Bistriopelma gen. nov. but strongly divergent in Phrixotrichus and by the different morphology of male palpal bulb (embolus projecting retrolaterally from tegulum in Bistriopelma gen. nov. against posteriorly in Phrixotrichus); furthermore by the presence of basal spine on prolateral tibial apophysis, the absence of the type IV urticating setae and paired tarsal claws denticulate. Bistriopelma gen. nov. is separated from Tmesiphantes hypogeus by the position of the urticating seta patches (middle of abdomen in Bistriopelma gen. nov. and posterior half in Tmesiphantes hypogeus), the different shape of spermathecae (long separate seminal receptacles with subapical constriction in Bistriopelma gen. nov. and short, subtriangular and widely separated in Tmesiphantes hypogeus) and also in the extension of metatarsal scopulae. Additional comments and a distribution map of all species of this genus are provided.

A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from southwestern Argentina and new distributional data for P. vulpinus

Nelson Ferretti ,2015

A new species of Phrixotrichus Simon, 1889, P. pucara sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a male from Pucará river, Neuquén province, Argentina. Male can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a long strong spine on inner face of prolateral branch of tibial apophysis; also, it differs from P. scrofa (Molina, 1788) and P. vulpinus (Karsch, 1880) by a serrated prolateral keel of the male palpal bulb. Male resembles P. jara Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014 but can be distinguished by the uniform color on dorsal cephalothorax and by the palpal organ morphology being wider on the bulb base and embolus shorter and thicker, with the tip of embolus not so directed retrolaterally and prolateral keel bearing a serrated edge with three teeth. Additionally, P. vulpinus is reported for the first time for Argentina along with new distributional data.

Revalidation of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão and notes on Hapalotremus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

Sylvia M. Lucas, Rafael Prezzi Indicatti ,2015

Hapalotremus exilis (Mello-Leitão, 1923) and Hapalotremus muticus (Mello-Leitão, 1923), previously considered as nomina dubia are here revalidated through the examination of the holotypes. Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 is revalidated and their type species, Dolichothele exilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 is restored. Goniodontium Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Oligoxystre Vellard, 1924 are considered junior synonyms of Dolichothele. Hapalotremus muticus and Oligoxystre caatinga Guadanucci, 2007 are considered junior synonyms of D. exilis. All species of Oligoxystre are transferred to Dolichothele. Cyclothoracoides Strand, 1929, currently a junior synonym of Hapalotremus Simon, 1903, is here considered a junior synonym of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01650521.2015.1103553

Description of Neoholothele gen. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Schismatothelinae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Dirk Weinmann ,2015

The new genus Neoholothele is herein described based on the results of a recent phylogenetic analysis. This phylogeny, which included representatives of all Theraphosidae subfamilies, showed that the genus Holothele, as hitherto defined, does not comprise a monophyletic group. Neoholothele gen. nov. is diagnosed by the following features: males and females with dark carapace and golden cephalic region; females with striped color pattern on the abdomen dorsum and long and slender spermathecae receptacula; males with retrolateral branch of male tibial spur with apical end wider than proximal end (synapomorphy), with two apical spines. It comprises two species: N. incei (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898) comb. nov. and N. fasciaaurinigra sp. nov., both from northern South America.

On three new Euathlus tarantulas from Argentina and cladistic analysis of the genus

Nelson Ferretti ,2015

Three unknown species of Euathlus Ausserer 1875 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) are recognized and formally described. Euathlus diamante Ferretti sp. nov., E. sagei Ferretti sp. nov., and E. tenebrarum Ferretti sp. nov. are described from the Mendoza and Neuquén provinces of western Argentina. The cladistic analysis showed Euathlus as monophyletic supported by the following synapomorphies: i) male tibial apophysis with fused branches bases; ii) presence of a ventral spine on retrolateral branch of male tibial apophysis; iii) sternum longer than wide. According to this cladistics analysis, a tree topology of (Homoeomma uruguayense (Mello-Leitão 1946) (Plesiopelma longisternale (Schiapelli & Gerschman 1942) (Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) (Phrixotrichus scrofa (Molina 1788) (E. tenebrarum sp. nov. (E. truculentus L. Koch 1875, E. sagei sp. nov. ((E. parvulus (Pocock 1903) (E. condorito Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014, E. manicata (Simon 1892), E. atacama Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014)) (E. antai Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014, E. diamante sp. nov.)))))))) is reported.

Revision of the genus Phormingochilus with the description of three new species from Sulawesi and Sarawak and notes on the placement of the genera Cyriopagopus, Lampropelma and Omothymus

Andrew Smith, Michael A Jacobi ,2015

Three new arboreal theraphosid spiders of the genus Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895 are here described from Sulawesi and Sarawak, Borneo: Phormingochilus carpenteri sp. nov., P. kirki sp. nov., and P. pennellhewletti sp. nov. The genus has been revised and historical species redescribed. The authors have also discussed the placement of the Ornithoctoninae genera Cyriopagopus Simon, 1887, Lampropelma Simon, 1892 and Omothymus Thorell, 1891 and, after an examination of the type material, concluded that Cyriopagopus is a senior synonym of the genus Haplopelma Simon, 1892 and that the genus Omothymus needs to be restored to house the arboreal Malaysian mainland species schioedtei (Thorell, 1891) and thorelli (Simon, 1901), which were formerly assigned to the genus Cyriopagopus but have now been restored to their original placement. We have also concluded, on examination of the type material that the female of Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 from Southern Malaysia should be removed from the genus Lampropelma (whose distribution at present, we believe to be limited to Lampropelma nigerrimum from Sangihe (Sangir) Island) and placed in the genus Omothymus, whereas the male, from Penang, is deemed to be a misidentified specimen of Cyriopagopus (Omothymus) schioedtei.

Aguapanela, a new tarantula genus from the Colombian Andes (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Carlos Perafán, Yeimy Cifuentes, Sebastian Estrada-Gomez ,2015

A new monotypic genus of Theraphosidae is described from Colombia: Aguapanela Perafán & Cifuentes gen. nov. with only the type species Aguapanela arvi Perafán, Cifuentes & Estrada sp. nov., from Caldas and Medellin, Antioquia, Colombian Andes. The new genus differs from other theraphosid spiders mainly in the presence of stridulatory setae on the palps and legs I and II, together with the presence of type III and IV urticating setae. Males lack a tibial apophysis on leg I and have a simple palpal bulb with the subtegulum less extended than usual in Theraphosinae, elongated curved embolus, ventrally concave, and with two prolateral keels very flat and developed on the dorsal edge. The female spermathecae have two digitiform elongated and granulated seminal receptacles attached to a semicircular wide membranous base. We describe, diagnose and illustrate the new genus and give some biological remarks. Morphological, systematic and biogeographic aspects are discussed. Chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of its venom are analyzed.

Revised generic placement of Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980, with definition of the taxonomic features for identification of female Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2015

The tarantula genus Sericopelma was originally defined based on male specimens, most notably lacking tibial spurs on leg I. Early female specimens were unrecognised as Sericopelma, and typically placed in Eurypelma – a dumping ground for problem specimens. The first females were only later recognised, but authors failed to adequately define female Sericopelma. Here, the holotypes of the Southern-most alleged Brachypelma species, B. embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and B. angustum Valerio, 1980 were examined, and finding both to possess defining characteristics of Sericopelma were transferred. The taxonomic attributes to define Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and select other Neotropical genera are discussed, especially for females. As important diagnostic characters for Sericopelma, the single (unilobar) spermathecae swollen at the apex forming a P-shaped cross-section, metatarsus IV with trace scopula, femur IV with a dense retrolateral pad of plumose hair, plus other attributes. Some past confusion in these characters are clarified and Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and Megaphobema mesomelas are discussed. Finally recommendations are given about these taxonomic changes for CITES regulations.

First record of Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) in Argentina and notes on its natural history in Misiones province

Nelson Ferretti, Sofía Copperi, Leonela Schwerdt, Gabriel Pompozzi ,2015

This is the first record for the tarantula Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural history is provided.

The Neotropical genus Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 and new species from Peru, Brazil and Venezuela (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2015

Cyriocosmus peruvianus sp. nov., C. itayensis sp. nov., C. aueri sp. nov., C. giganteus sp. nov. from Peru, Loreto region, C. hoeferi sp. nov. from Brazil, C. williamlamari sp. nov. and C. nicholausgordoni sp. nov. from Venezuela are described, illustrated, diagnosed and both sexes, if known, keyed. New Peruvian species can be distinguished from all congeners, except C. bertae Pérez-Miles, 1998 and C. pribiki Pérez-Miles and Weinmann, 2009, by the uniformly coloured carapace and abdomen without stripes and by the short paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb. The female of Cyriocosmus ritae Pérez-Miles, 1998 is described for the first time from a known Peruvian population near Iquitos.

On the taxonomic placement of four African Phoneyusa species (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Eumenophorinae)

Richard C Gallon, Ingo Wendt ,2015

Phoneyusa elephantiasis Berland, 1917 is illustrated, redescribed and, along with Phoneyusa celerierae Smith, 1990 and Phoneyusa efuliensis Smith, 1990, transferred to the genus Hysterocrates Simon, 1892. Type material of Hysterocrates gigas Pocock, 1897 and topotypes of Phoneyusa lesserti Dresco, 1973 are illustrated for comparison. Phoneyusa nigroventris (Marx, 1893) is treated as nomen dubium.

Discovery of the critically endangered tarantula species of the genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae), Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, from Sri Lanka

Ranil P. Nanayakkara, G.A.S.M Ganehiarachchi, Nilantha Vishvanath, T.G. Tharaka Kusuminda ,2015

The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

Tmesiphantes mirim sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Bahia, Brazil, biogeographical notes and identification keys for species of the genus

Willian Fabiano-da-Silva, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Márcio Bernardino DaSilva ,2015

A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated, based on eight male specimens collected at the Una Biological Reserve, southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It is distinguished by the morphology of male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis. The new species is very small and is the smallest theraphosid described to date (body length 5.5 mm). It is distinguished from congeners by the size, which vary from 12 mm (T. riopretano) to 23.8 mm (T. nubilus) in other species of the genus, aspect of palpal bulb, sternal posterior sigillae close to sternal margin and by the aspect of tibial apophysis which lacks the prolateral branch. Tmesiphantes presently comprises nine species. Sixth have been described for the southern region of Bahia, a well known area of endemism in the Atlantic Forest. Identification keys for Tmesiphantes males and females are presented.

A new cave-dwelling Mygalomorph spider of the genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 (ARANEAE: THERAPHOSIDAE: SELENOCOSMIINAE) from Burdeos, Polillo Island, Quezon province, Philippines

Aimee Lynn A Barrion-Dupo, Alberto T Barrion, Joseph B Rasalan ,2015

A new tarantula species of the genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897, P. kwebaburdeos n. sp. is described and illustrated based on a series of specimens collected inside the Puting Bato Cave 3-4 in Burdeos, Polilio Island, Quezon Province, Philippines. P. kwebaburdeos Barrion-Dupo, Barrion and Rasalan n. sp., a cave-dwelling mygalomorph spider represents the fifth and sixteenth species of Phlogiellus reported in the Philippines and in Southand Southeast Asia, respectively.

Ami armihuariensis, a new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2014

Ami armihuariensis sp. nov. from Cuzco region, Peru is described, diagnosed and figured. Males of Ami armihuariensis sp. nov. differ from all other congeners, except A. pijaos, by the presence of only one retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, from A. pijaos by the granulation in tegular area of male palpal bulb. Additionally, photographs of A. yupanquii spermatheca are for the first time presented in order to emphasize the characteristic shape of spermathecae in this genus.